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6LoWPAN: The Wireless Embedded Internet

ISBN: 978-0-470-74799-5
244 pages
December 2009
6LoWPAN: The Wireless Embedded Internet (0470747994) cover image
"It is stunningly thorough and takes readers meticulously through the design, configuration and operation of IPv6-based, low-power, potentially mobile radio-based networking." Vint Cerf, Vice President and Chief Internet Evangelist, Google

This book provides a complete overview of IPv6 over Low Power Wireless Area Network (6LoWPAN) technology

In this book, the authors provide an overview of the 6LoWPAN family of standards, architecture, and related wireless and Internet technology. Starting with an overview of the IPv6 ‘Internet of Things’, readers are offered an insight into how these technologies fit together into a complete architecture. The 6LoWPAN format and related standards are then covered in detail. In addition, the authors discuss the building and operation of 6LoWPAN networks, including bootstrapping, routing, security, Internet ingration, mobility and application protocols. Furthermore, implementation aspects of 6LoWPAN are covered.

Key Features:

  • Demonstrates how the 6LoWPAN standard makes the latest Internet protocols available to even the most minimal embedded devices over low-rate wireless networks
  • Provides an overview of the 6LoWPAN standard, architecture and related wireless and Internet technology, and explains the 6LoWPAN protocol format in detail
  • Details operational topics such as bootstrapping, routing, security, Internet integration, mobility and application protocols
  • Written by expert authors with vast experience in the field (industrial and academic)
  • Includes an accompanying website containing tutorial slides, course material and open-source code with examples (http://6lowpan.net )

6LoWPAN: The Wireless Embedded Internet is an invaluable reference for professionals working in fields such as telecommunications, control, and embedded systems. Advanced students and teachers in electrical engineering, information technology and computer science will also find this book useful.

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List of Figures ix

List of Tables xiii

Foreword xv

Preface xvii

Acknowledgments xix

1 Introduction 1

1.1 The Wireless Embedded Internet 3

1.1.1 Why 6LoWPAN? 4

1.1.2 6LoWPAN history and standardization 6

1.1.3 Relation of 6LoWPAN toother trends 8

1.1.4 Applications of 6LoWPAN 9

1.1.5 Example: facility management 11

1.2 The 6LoWPAN Architecture 13

1.3 6LoWPAN Introduction 15

1.3.1 The protocol stack 16

1.3.2 Link layers for 6LoWPAN 17

1.3.3 Addressing 19

1.3.4 Header format 20

1.3.5 Bootstrapping 20

1.3.6 Mesh topologies 22

1.3.7 Internet integration 23

1.4 Network Example 24

2 The 6LoWPAN Format 27

2.1 Functions of an Adaptation Layer 28

2.2 Assumptions About the Link Layer 29

2.2.1 Link-layer technologies beyond IEEE 802.15.4 29

2.2.2 Link-layer service model 30

2.2.3 Link-layer addressing 31

2.2.4 Link-layer management and operation 32

2.3 The Basic 6LoWPAN Format 32

2.4 Addressing 34

2.5 Forwarding and Routing 37

2.5.1 L2 forwarding (“Mesh-Under”) 38

2.5.2 L3 routing (“Route-Over”) 40

2.6 Header Compression 41

2.6.1 Stateless header compression 43

2.6.2 Context-based header compression 45

2.7 Fragmentation and Reassembly 52

2.7.1 The fragmentation format 55

2.7.2 Avoiding the fragmentation performance penalty 59

2.8 Multicast 59

3 Bootstrapping and Security 63

3.1 Commissioning 64

3.2 Neighbor Discovery 66

3.2.1 Forming addresses 67

3.2.2 Registration 69

3.2.3 Registration collisions 73

3.2.4 Multihop registration 77

3.2.5 Node operation 80

3.2.6 Router operation 81

3.2.7 Edge router operation 82

3.3 Security 83

3.3.1 Security objectives and threat models 84

3.3.2 Layer2 mechanisms 85

3.3.3 Layer3 mechanisms 87

3.3.4 Key management 89

4 Mobility and Routing 91

4.1 Mobility 92

4.1.1 Mobility types 92

4.1.2 Solutions for mobility 94

4.1.3 Application methods 96

4.1.4 Mobile IPv6 97

4.1.5 Proxy Home Agent 100

4.1.6 ProxyMIPv6 100

4.1.7 NEMO 102

4.2 Routing 104

4.2.1 Overview 104

4.2.2 The role of Neighbor Discovery 107

4.2.3 Routing requirements 108

4.2.4 Route metrics 109

4.2.5 MANET routing protocols 111

4.2.6 The ROLL routing protocol 114

4.2.7 Border routing 119

4.3 IPv4 Interconnectivity 120

4.3.1 IPv6 transition 121

4.3.2 IPv6-in-IPv4 tunneling 122

5 Application Protocols 125

5.1 Introduction 126

5.2 Design Issues 127

5.2.1 Linklayer 129

5.2.2 Networking 130

5.2.3 Host issues 130

5.2.4 Compression 131

5.2.5 Security 131

5.3 Protocol Paradigms 132

5.3.1 End-to-end 132

5.3.2 Real-time streaming and sessions 132

5.3.3 Publish/subscribe 133

5.3.4 Web service paradigms 134

5.4 Common Protocols 134

5.4.1 Web service protocols 135

5.4.2 MQ telemetry transport for sensor networks (MQTT-S) 137

5.4.3 ZigBee compact application protocol (CAP) 139

5.4.4 Service discovery 141

5.4.5 Simple network management protocol (SNMP) 142

5.4.6 Real-time transport and sessions 143

5.4.7 Industry-specific protocols 144

6 Using 6LoWPAN 149

6.1 Chip Solutions 150

6.1.1 Single-chip solutions 150

6.1.2 Two-chip solutions 151

6.1.3 Network processor solutions 151

6.2 Protocol Stacks 152

6.2.1 ContikianduIPv6 153

6.2.2 TinyOS and BLIP 153

6.2.3 Sensinode NanoStack 154

6.2.4 Jennic6LoWPAN 155

6.2.5 Nivis ISA100 155

6.3 Application Development 156

6.4 Edge Router Integration 159

7 System Examples 163

7.1 ISA100 Industrial Automation 164

7.1.1 Motivation for industrial wireless sensor networks 164

7.1.2 Complications of the industrial space 165

7.1.3 The ISA100.11a standard 166

7.1.4 ISA100.11a data link layer 169

7.2 Wireless RFID Infrastructure 170

7.2.1 Technical overview 172

7.2.2 Benefits from 6LoWPAN 173

7.3 Building Energy Savings and Management 174

7.3.1 Network architecture 174

7.3.2 Technical overview 174

7.3.3 Benefits from 6LoWPAN 175

8 Conclusion 177

A IPv6 Reference 181

A.1 Notation 181

A.2 Addressing 182

A.3 IPv6 Neighbor Discovery 184

A.4 IPv6 Stateless Address Autoconfiguration 188

B IEEE 802.15.4 Reference 191

B.1 Introduction 191

B.2 Overall Packet Format 192

B.3 MAC-layer Security 194

List of Abbreviations 195

Glossary 203

References 209

Index 219

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The Wireless Embedded InternetVisit the authors' website to find out more about 6LoWPAN and to access the companion material, including tutorial slides, course material and open-source code examples.
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