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Cooperative Networking

Mohammad S. Obaidat (Editor), Sudip Misra (Editor)
ISBN: 978-0-470-74915-9
352 pages
August 2011
Cooperative Networking (0470749156) cover image
This book focuses on the latest trends and research results in Cooperative Networking

This book discusses the issues involved in cooperative networking, namely, bottleneck resource management, resource utilization, servers and content, security, and so on. In addition, the authors address instances of cooperation in nature which actively encourage the development of cooperation in telecommunication networks. Following an introduction to the fundamentals and issues surrounding cooperative networking, the book addresses models of cooperation, inspirations of successful cooperation from nature and society, cooperation in networking (for e.g. Peer-to-Peer, wireless ad-hoc and sensor, client-server, and autonomous vehicular networks), cooperation and ambient networking, cooperative caching, cooperative networking for streaming media content, optimal node-task allocation, heterogeneity issues in cooperative networking, cooperative search in networks, and security and privacy issues with cooperative networking.

It contains contributions from high profile researchers and is edited by leading experts in this field.

Key Features:

  • Focuses on higher layer networking
  • Addresses the latest trends and research results 
  •  Covers fundamental concepts, models, advanced topics and performance issues in cooperative networking
  • Contains contributions from leading experts in the field
  • Provides an insight into the future direction of cooperative networking
  • Includes an accompanying website containing PowerPoint slides and a glossary of terms (www.wiley.com/go/obaidat_cooperative)

This book is an ideal reference for researchers and practitioners working in the field. It will also serve as an excellent textbook for graduate and senior undergraduate courses in computer science, computer engineering, electrical engineering, software engineering, and information engineering and science.

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About the Editors xiii

List of Contributors xvii

1 Introduction 1
Mohammad S. Obaidat and Sudip Misra

1.1 Major Features of the Book 4

1.2 Target Audience 4

1.3 Supplementary Resources 5

1.4 Acknowledgements 5

2 Fundamentals and Issues with Cooperation in Networking 7
Mohammad S. Obaidat and Tarik Guelzim

2.1 Introduction 7

2.2 Fundamentals of Cooperating Networks 7

2.2.1 Cooperative Adhoc Network Services 8

2.2.2 Cooperative Relaying Network Service 13

2.3 Issues and Security Flaws with Cooperating Networks:

Wireless Sensor Networks Case Study 15

2.3.1 Limitations in Mobile Ad hoc Networks 16

2.4 Conclusions 19

References 19

3 To Cooperate or Not to Cooperate? That is the Question! 21
Mohamed H. Ahmed and Salama S. Ikki

3.1 Introduction 21

3.2 Overview of Cooperative-Diversity Systems 22

3.2.1 Relaying Techniques 22

3.2.2 Combining Techniques 23

3.2.3 Other Cooperating Techniques 24

3.3 Benefits of Cooperative-Diversity Systems 25

3.3.1 Signal-Quality Improvement 25

3.3.2 Reduced Power 28

3.3.3 Better Coverage 28

3.3.4 Capacity Gain 28

3.4 Major Challenges of Cooperative-Diversity Systems 28

3.4.1 Resources Over-Utilization 28

3.4.2 Additional Delay 29

3.4.3 Complexity 30

3.4.4 Unavailability of Cooperating Nodes 32

3.4.5 Security Threats 32

3.5 Discussion and Conclusion 32

References 33

4 Cooperation in Wireless Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks 35
J. Barbancho, D. Cascado, J. L. Sevillano, C. León, A. Linares and F. J. Molina

4.1 Introduction 35

4.2 Why Could Cooperation in WAdSN be Useful? 36

4.2.1 Time Synchronization, Localization and Calibration 36

4.2.2 Routing 41

4.2.3 Data Aggregation and Fusion 43

4.3 Research Directions for Cooperation in WAdSN 45

4.3.1 Middleware for WAdSN 46

4.3.2 Multi-Agent Systems in WAdSN 48

4.3.3 Artificial Neural Networks in WAdSN 50

4.4 Final Remarks 53

4.5 Acknowledgements 53

References 53

5 Cooperation in Autonomous Vehicular Networks 57
Sidi Mohammed Senouci, Abderrahim Benslimane and Hassnaa Moustafa

5.1 Introduction 57

5.2 Overview on Vehicular Networks 58

5.3 Cooperation at Different OSI Layers 59

5.3.1 Cooperation at Lower Layers 59

5.3.2 Cooperation at Network Layer 60

5.3.3 Security and Authentication versus Cooperation 67

5.3.4 Cooperation at Upper Layers 69

5.4 Conclusion 73

References 73

6 Cooperative Overlay Networking for Streaming Media Content 77
F. Wang, J. Liu and K. Wu

6.1 Introduction 77

6.2 Architectural Choices for Streaming Media Content over the Internet 78

6.2.1 Router-Based Architectures: IP Multicast 79

6.2.2 Architectures with Proxy Caching 80

6.2.3 Peer-to-Peer Architectures 81

6.3 Peer-to-Peer Media Streaming 82

6.3.1 Comparisons with Other Peer-to-Peer Applications 82

6.3.2 Design Issues 83

6.3.3 Approaches for Overlay Construction 83

6.4 Overview of mTreebone 85

6.4.1 Treebone: A Stable Tree-Based Backbone 85

6.4.2 Mesh: An Adaptive Auxiliary Overlay 86

6.5 Treebone Construction and Optimization 87

6.5.1 Optimal Stable Node Identification 87

6.5.2 Treebone Bootstrapping and Evolution 88

6.5.3 Treebone Optimization 89

6.6 Collaborative Mesh-Tree Data Delivery 91

6.6.1 Seamless Push/Pull Switching 91

6.6.2 Handling Host Dynamics 91

6.7 Performance Evaluation 92

6.7.1 Large-Scale Simulations 92

6.7.2 PlanetLab-Based Experiments 94

6.8 Conclusion and Future Work 98

References 98

7 Cooperation in DTN-Based Network Architectures 101
Vasco N. G. J. Soares and Joel J. P. C. Rodrigues

7.1 Introduction 101

7.2 Delay-Tolerant Networks 102

7.2.1 DTN Application Domains 103

7.2.2 Cooperation in Delay-Tolerant Networks 103

7.3 Vehicular Delay-Tolerant Networks 106

7.3.1 Cooperation in Vehicular-Delay Tolerant Networks 106

7.3.2 Performance Assessment of Node Cooperation 108

7.4 Conclusions 112

7.5 Acknowledgements 113

References 113

8 Access Selection and Cooperation in Ambient Networks 117
Ram´on Agüero

8.1 Leveraging the Cooperation in Heterogeneous Wireless Networks 117

8.2 The Ambient Networks Philosophy 118

8.2.1 Generic Link Layer 120

8.2.2 Management of Heterogeneous Wireless Resources 120

8.2.3 Additional Functional Entities 121

8.2.4 Multi-Access Functions and Procedures 122

8.3 Related Work 125

8.4 Outlook 125

8.4.1 Cognition 125

8.4.2 Mesh Topologies 127

8.5 Conclusions 127

References 128

9 Cooperation in Intrusion Detection Networks 133
Carol Fung and Raouf Boutaba

9.1 Overview of Network Intrusions 133

9.1.1 Single-Host Intrusion and Malware 133

9.1.2 Distributed Attacks and Botnets 134

9.1.3 Cooperative Attacks and Phishing 134

9.2 Intrusion Detection Systems 135

9.2.1 Signature-Based and Anomaly-Based IDSs 135

9.2.2 Host-Based and Network-Based IDSs 135

9.3 Cooperation in Intrusion Detection Networks 136

9.3.1 Cooperation Topology 136

9.3.2 Cooperation Scope 137

9.3.3 Specialization 137

9.3.4 Cooperation Technologies and Algorithms 137

9.3.5 Taxonomy 138

9.4 Selected Intrusion Detection Networks 139

9.4.1 Indra 139

9.4.2 DOMINO 139

9.4.3 DShield 140

9.4.4 NetShield 140

9.4.5 Gossip 141

9.4.6 Worminator 142

9.4.7 ABDIAS 142

9.4.8 CRIM 142

9.4.9 HBCIDS 143

9.4.10 ALPACAS 143

9.4.11 CDDHT 143

9.4.12 SmartScreen Filter 143

9.4.13 FFCIDN 144

9.5 Open Challenges and Future Directions 144

9.6 Conclusion 144

References 144

10 Cooperation Link Level Retransmission in Wireless Networks 147
Mehrdad Dianati, Xuemin (Sherman) Shen and Kshirasagar Naik

10.1 Introduction 147

10.2 Background 149

10.2.1 Modeling of Fading Channels 149

10.2.2 Automatic Repeat Request 152

10.3 System Model 154

10.4 Protocol Model 155

10.5 Node Cooperative SW Scheme 156

10.6 Performance Analysis 157

10.7 Delay Analysis 164

10.8 Verification of Analytical Models 168

10.8.1 Throughput 169

10.8.2 Average Delay and Delay Jitter 171

10.9 Discussion of the Related Works 172

10.10 Summary 174

10.11 Acknowledgement 174

References 175

11 Cooperative Inter-Node and Inter-Layer Optimization of Network Protocols 177
D. Kliazovich, F. Granelli and N. L. S. da Fonseca

11.1 Introduction 177

11.2 A Framework for Cooperative Configuration and Optimization 178

11.2.1 Tuning TCP/IP Parameters 178

11.2.2 Cooperative Optimization Architecture 179

11.3 Cooperative Optimization Design 181

11.3.1 Inter-Layer Cooperative Optimization 181

11.3.2 Inter-Node Cooperative Optimization 183

11.4 A Test Case: TCP Optimization Using a Cooperative Framework 184

11.4.1 Implementation 184

11.4.2 Inter-Layer Cognitive Optimization 186

11.4.3 Inter-Node Cognitive Optimization 187

11.5 Conclusions 189

References 189

12 Cooperative Network Coding 191
H. Rashvand, C. Khirallah, V. Stankovic and L. Stankovic

12.1 Introduction 191

12.2 Network Coding Concept 192

12.2.1 Example 192

12.3 Cooperative Relay 195

12.4 Cooperation Strategies 196

12.4.1 Performance Measures 197

12.5 Cooperative Network Coding 206

12.6 Conclusions 214

References 214

13 Cooperative Caching for Chip Multiprocessors 217
J. Chang, E. Herrero, R. Canal and G. Sohi

13.1 Caching and Chip Multiprocessors 217

13.1.1 Caching Background 217

13.1.2 CMP (Chip Multiprocessor) 218

13.1.3 CMP Caching Challenges 218

13.2 Cooperative Caching and CMP Caching 220

13.2.1 Motivation for Cooperative Caching 220

13.2.2 The Unique Aspects of Cooperative Caching 220

13.2.3 CMP Cache Partitioning Schemes 225

13.2.4 A Taxonomy of CMP Caching Techniques 226

13.3 CMP Cooperative Caching Framework 226

13.3.1 CMP Cooperative Caching Framework 227

13.3.2 CC Mechanisms 229

13.3.3 CC Implementations 234

13.3.4 CC for Large Scale CMPs 241

13.3.5 Distributed Cooperative Caching 243

13.3.6 Summary 249

13.4 CMP Cooperative Caching Applications 251

13.4.1 CMP Cooperative Caching for Latency Reduction 252

13.4.2 CMP Cooperative Caching for Adaptive Repartitioning 259

13.4.3 CMP Cooperative Caching for Performance Isolation 262

13.5 Summary 269

References 270

14 Market-Oriented Resource Management and Scheduling: A Taxonomy and Survey 277
Saurabh Kumar Garg and Rajkumar Buyya

14.1 Introduction 277

14.2 Overview of Utility Grids and Preliminaries 277

14.3 Requirements 279

14.3.1 Consumer Side Requirements 279

14.3.2 Resource Provider Side Requirements 280

14.3.3 Market Exchange Requirements 280

14.4 Utility Grid Infrastructural Components 282

14.5 Taxonomy of Market-Oriented Scheduling 283

14.5.1 Market Model 284

14.5.2 Allocation Decision 288

14.5.3 Participant Focus 288

14.5.4 Application Type 288

14.5.5 Allocation Objective 289

14.6 Survey of Grid Resource Management Systems 289

14.6.1 Survey of Market-Oriented Systems 289

14.6.2 System-Oriented Schedulers 296

14.7 Discussion and Gap Analysis 300

14.7.1 Scheduling Mechanisms 300

14.7.2 Market Based Systems 301

14.8 Summary 302

References 303

Glossary 307

Index 319

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Mohammad Obaidat, Monmouth University, USA
Mohammad Obaidat received his Ph.D. and M. S. degrees in Computer Engineering with a minor in Computer Science from The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA. Dr. Obaidat is currently a full Professor of Computer Science at Monmouth University, NJ, USA. His research interests are: wireless communications and networks, pervasive computing, networking and communications, modeling and simulation, performance evaluation of computer systems, and telecommunications systems, security of computer and network systems, high performance computing/computers, applied neural networks and pattern recognition, security of e-based systems, and speech processing.

Dr. Sudip Misra, the Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, India
Sudip Misra is an Assistant Professor in the School of Information Technology at the Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, India, and is also an Adjunct Professor in the Department of Computer Science at Ryerson University, Toronto, Canada. He received his Ph.D. degree in Computer Science from Carleton University, in Ottawa, Canada, and the masters and bachelor's degrees respectively from the University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, Canada, and the Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, India. His current research interests include algorithm design and engineering for telecommunication networks, software engineering for telecommunication applications, and computational intelligence and soft computing applications in telecommunications.

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Cooperative NetworkingVisit the accompanying website to access PowerPoint slides and a glossary of terms.
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