Essential Guide to Blood Groups
April 2008, Wiley-Blackwell
This handbook helps to address these important issues and also covers:
- the serology, inheritance, biochemistry, and molecular genetics of the most important blood group systems
- their clinical importance
- techniques used in blood grouping, troubleshooting, and quality assurance
This unique and practical guide:
- is written by leaders in the field, including the author of the best seller Human Blood Groups
- provides the basic knowledge of blood groups needed by all those working in the important fields of transfusion medicine and science.
- helps in resolving commonly encountered problems
Essential Guide to Blood Groups will be valuable for undergraduate medical laboratory scientists and for postgraduate scientists and medical practitioners training to specialise in transfusion and transplantation. As a pocket edition, it will also be a useful addition to other reference works on blood groups for quick access to information for medical practitioners and in red cell immunohaematology laboratories.
1. An introduction to blood groups.
What is a blood group?.
Blood group antibodies.
Clinical importance of blood groups.
Biological importance of blood groups.
Blood group systems.
Blood group terminology and classification.
2. Techniques used in blood grouping.
Factors affecting antigen-antibody reactions.
Time and ionic strength.
Stages of haemagglutination reactions.
Automation of test procedures.
Molecular blood group genotyping.
3. The ABO blood groups.
ABO antigens, antibodies, and inheritance.
A1 and A2.
Antigen, phenotype, and gene frequencies.
The importance of the ABO system to transfusion and transplantation medicine.
The biochemical nature of the ABO antigens.
Biosynthesis of the ABO antigens and ABO molecular genetics.
H, the precursor of A and B.
H-deficient red cells.
Associations with disease and functional aspects.
4. The Rh blood group system.
Introduction – Rh, not rhesus.
Haplotypes, genotypes, and phenotypes.
Biochemistry and molecular genetics.
D antigen (RH1).
Molecular basis of the D polymorphism.
Clinical significance of anti-D.
Prediction of RhD phenotype from fetal DNA.
C, c, E, and e antigens (RH2, RH4, RH3, RH5).
Clinical significance of CcEe antibodies.
Molecular basis of the C/c and E/e polymorphisms.
Other Rh antigens.
Compound antigens: ce, Ce, CE, cE (RH6, RH7, RH22, RH27) and G (RH12).
Cw, Cx, MAR (RH8, RH9, RH51).
VS, V (RH20, RH10).
Rh-deficient phenotypes – Rhnull and Rhmod.
Putative function of the Rh proteins and RhAG.
5. Other blood groups.
The Kell System.
The Kell glycoprotein and the KEL gene.
McLeod syndrome, McLeod phenotype, and Kx (XK1) antigen.
The Duffy System.
Fya (FY1) and Fyb (FY2).
Anti-Fya and -Fyb.
Fy3 and Fy5.
The Duffy-glycoprotein, a receptor for chemokines.
Duffy and malaria.
The Kidd system.
Jka (JK1) and Jkb (JK2); anti-Jka and -Jkb.
Jk(a–b–) and Jk3.
The Kidd-glycoprotein is a urea transporter.
The MNS system.
M (MNS1) and N (MNS2); anti-M and -N.
S (MNS3) and s (MNS4); anti-S and -s.
S– s– U– phenotype and anti-U.
Other MNS antigens and antibodies.
The Diego System.
Band 3, the red cell anion exchanger.
Dia (DI1) and Dib (DI2); anti-Dia and -Dib.
Wra (DI3) and Wrb (DI4); anti-Wra and -Wrb.
Other Diego-system antigens.
The Lewis system.
Some other blood group systems.
Antigens that do not belong to a blood group system.
6. Clinical significance of blood group antibodies.
Antibody production and structure.
Factors affecting the clinical significance of antibodies.
Haemolytic transfusion reactions.
Intravascular red cell destruction.
Extravascular red cell destruction.
Haemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN).
Cross-matching for infants under 4 months old.
Tests to assess the potential significance of an antibody.
Decision making for transfusion.
7. Quality assurance in immunohaematology.
Achieving total quality.
Frequency and specificity of control material.
Quality requirements for safe transfusion practice.
Checklist of critical control points.
Quality control for molecular blood group testing.
8. Trouble-shooting and problem solving in the reference laboratory.
Problems in antibody screening, identification and cross-matching.
9. Frequently asked questions.
Imelda Bromilow, MSc, C.Biol, MIBiol, DMLM, Scientific Manager, DiaMed AG, Cressier Sur Murat, Switzerland
- Written by a leader in the field - author of the best seller - Human Blood Groups
- Helps readers avoid the commonest errors in the administration of blood products
- Covers essential information on most important blood group systems - together with their clinical importance, techniques used in blood grouping, troubleshooting, and quality assurance