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Handbook of Power Quality

ISBN: 978-0-470-75423-8
642 pages
July 2008
Handbook of Power Quality (0470754230) cover image
Due to the complexity of power systems combined with other factors such as increasing susceptibility of equipment, power quality (PQ) is apt to waver. With electricity in growing demand, low PQ is on the rise and becoming notoriously difficult to remedy. It is an issue that confronts professionals on a daily basis, but few have the required knowledge to diagnose and solve these problems.

Handbook of Power Quality examines of the full panorama of PQ disturbances, with background theory and guidelines on measurement procedures and problem solving. It uses the perspectives of both power suppliers and electricity users, with contributions from experts in all aspects of PQ supplying a vital balance of scientific and practical information on the following:

  • frequency variations;
  • the characteristics of voltage, including dips, fluctuations and flicker;
  • the continuity and reliability of electricity supply, its structure, appliances and equipment;
  • the relationship of PQ with power systems, distributed generation, and the electricity market;
  • the monitoring and cost of poor PQ;
  • rational use of energy.

An accompanying website hosts case studies for each chapter, demonstrating PQ practice; how problems are identified, analysed and resolved.  The website also includes extensive appendices listing the current standards, mathematical formulas, and principles of electrical circuits that are critical for the optimization of solutions. 

This comprehensive handbook explains PQ methodology with a hands-on approach that makes it essential for all practising power systems engineers and researchers. It simultaneously acts as a reference for electrical engineers and technical managers who meet with power quality issues and would like to further their knowledge in this area. 

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List of Contributors.

Preface.

1. Frequency Variations (Hermina Albert, Nicolae Golovanov, Aleksander Kot and Janusz Brozek).

1.1 Frequency Quality Indices.

1.2 Frequency Measuring.

1.3 Load–Frequency Characteristics.

1.4 Influence of Frequency on Users' Equipment.

1.5 Governing Of Turbine Speed.

1.6 Frequency Control in Power Systems.

Bibliography.

2. Continuity of Supply (Krish Gomatom and Tom Short).

2.1 Distribution Reliability.

2.2 Quality of Supply.

2.3 Factors Affecting Reliability Performance.

2.4 Improving Reliability.

2.5 Costs, Markets and Value for Reliability.

Bibliography.

3. Voltage Control in Distribution Systems(Andrzej Kanicki).

3.1 Description of the Phenomena.

3.2 Disturbance Sources.

3.3 Disturbance Effects.

3.4 Methods of Effect Elimination.

3.5 Standards.

Bibliography.

4. Voltage Dips and Short Supply Interruptions (Zbigniew Hanzelka).

4.1. Description of the Phenomena.

4.2. Parameters.

4.3. Sources.

4.4. Effects.

4.5. Mitigation.

4.6. Measurement.

4.7. Contract.

4.8. Standards.

4.9. Alternative Voltage Dip Indices.

Acknowledgement.

Bibliography.

5. Voltage Fluctuations and Flicker (Araceli Hernández Bayo).

5.1 Description of the Phenomenon.

5.2 Parameters.

5.3 Measurement.

5.4 Sources.

5.5 Effects.

5.6 Mitigation Strategies.

Bibliography.

6. Voltage and Current Unbalance (Irena Wasiak).

6.1 Description of the Phenomena.

6.2 Symmetrical Components of Currents and Voltages.

6.3 Parameters.

6.4 Measurements.

6.5 Sources.

6.6 Effects.

6.7 Mitigation.

6.8 Standards.

Bibliography.

7. Voltage and Current Harmonics (Angelo Baggini and Zbigniew Hanzelka).

7.1 Description of the Phenomena.

7.2 Parameters.

7.3 Measurements.

7.4 Sources of Current Harmonics.

7.5 Voltage and Current Harmonics.

7.6 Effects.

7.7 Mitigation.

7.8 Standards.

Bibliography.

8. Overvoltages (Franco Bua, Francesco Buratti and Alan Ascolari).

8.1. Description of The Phenomena.

8.2. Parameters.

8.3. Sources.

8.4. Effects.

8.5. Mitigation.

8.7. Standards.

Bibliography.

9. Analysis of Waveforms In Modern Power Systems (Johan Rens and Piet Swart).

9.1 Frequency Analysis Of Non-Sinusoidal Waveforms: Practical Considerations.

9.2 Analog-to-Digital Conversion.

9.3 Sequence Component Analysis.

9.4 IEEE 1459: Power Definitions for Modern Power Systems.

9.5 Localization of Sources of Waveform Distortion in a Modern Power System.

Bibliography.

10. Earthing (Franco Bua, Francesco Buratti and Antoni Klajn).

10.1 Typical Earthing System.

10.2 Electric Resistivity of Soil.

10.3 Electrical Properties of the Earth Electrodes.

10.4 Typical Earth-Electrode Constructions.

10.5 Earthing Arrangements in Protection Against Electric Shock.

10.6 Role Of Earthing in Electronic and Telecommunication Systems.

10.7 Lifetine Aspects of the Earthing Arrangements.

10.8 Measurements of Earthing Arrangements.

Bibliography.

11. Reliability of Electricity Supply: Structure (Angelo Baggini, David Chapman and Francesco Buratti).

11.1 Basic Schemes of Electrical Grids.

11.2 General Criteria for the Study and the Choice of the Schemes.

Bibliography.

12. Reliability of Electricity Supply: Appliances and Equipment (Roberto Villafáfila-Robles and Joan Bergas-Jané).

12.1 Power Quality, Reliability and Availability.

12.2 General Aspects of Reliability Appliances.

12.3 Power System Protection Alternatives.

12.4 Emergency and Standby Power Systems.

12.5 Dynamic UPS Systems.

12.6 Static UPS System.

12.7 Good Engineering Practices.

Bibliography.

13. Monitoring Power Quality (Andreas Sumper and Samuel Galceran-Arellano).

13.1 Monitoring Objectives.

13.2 Measurement Issues.

13.3 Selection of Monitoring Instruments.

13.4 Successful Power Quality Monitoring.

13.5 Postprocessing Monitoring Results.

Bibliography.

14. Static Converters and Power Quality (Mircea Chindris and Antoni Sudrià-Andreu).

14.1 Impact of Static Converters on the Supply Network.

14.2. Impact of Supply Network Disturbances On Static Converters.

Bibliography.

15. Compensation of Reactive Power (Stefan Fassbinder and Alan Ascolari).

15.1 Basics.

15.2 Power Factor Correction.

15.3 Passive Filters.

Bibliography.

16. Distributed Generation and Power Quality (Vu Van Thong and Johan Driesen).

16.1. Distribution Network Modeling.

16.2. Power Quality and DG.

Bibliography.

17. Electricity Market (Pieter Vermeyen and Johan Driesen).

17.1 Market Players.

17.2 Contract Types.

17.3 Load Management in the Electricity Market.

17.4 Power Quality in the Electricity Market.

Bibliography.

18. Cost of Poor Power Quality (Roman Targosz and Jonathan Manson).

18.1 Exploring PQ Cost.

18.2 Studies on Cost of Poor PQ.

18.3 Long Interruptions.

18.4 Short Interruptions.

18.5 Voltage Dips.

18.6 Harmonics.

18.7 Other Disturbances.

18.8 Profiles by Sector.

18.9 Cost Per Event of PQ Disturbances.

18.10 PQ Solutions.

18.11 Investment Analysis to Mitigate Costs of PQ.

Bibliography.

19. Power Quality and Rational Use Of Energy (Pieter Vermeyen and Johan Driesen).

19.1 Reasons for Rational Use of Energy.

19.2 Techniques for Rational use of Energy.

19.3 Impact on Power Quality.

Bibliography.

20. Perceived Power Quality (Maurizio Caciotta).

20.1 Customer Definition.

20.2 Customer Requirements.

20.3 Analysis Process of the Customer With Respect to the Requirements Concerning the Product.

20.4 Multiplicity of the Goods: Active Categories in the Territory of Rome.

Bibliography.

Index.

Case Studies and Annexes Accessible on the Companion Website.

Annex 1 (Angelo Baggini and Alan Ascolari).

Annex 2 (Angelo Baggini and Zbigniew Hanzelka).

Annex 3 Power Theory with Non-sinusoidal Waveforms (Andrzej Firlit).

Annex 4 Series and Parallel Resonance (Zbigniew Hanzelka).

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Angelo Baggini is currently a Professor of Electrical Engineering at the University of Bergamo and also works as a consultant with his own company, Engineering Consulting and Design. He received his PhD in Electrical Engineering from the University of Pavia in 1997 with a thesis on 'EMC aspects on dry type cast resin power transformers' and is active in the technical communications field, having written 2 dissemination books, over 100 press and scientific articles and over 50 papers for seminars and conferences. He teaches courses on 'Elements of Electrical Power Engineering' and also has experience carrying out feasibility studies, energy audits and energy loss evaluation of transformers. He is a member of the Italian Electrical Committee (CEI) and the European Committee for Electrical Standardization (CENELEC), carrying out work for several committee standards groups.
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"Those wanting to learn more about power quality issues and causes will find this book well organized, and very easy to read and understand. It is also a good resource in that it contains many up-to-date references for further in-depth study." (IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine, May/June 2009)
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Handbook of Power QualityVisit to see case studies for each chapter and extensive appendices
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