Extraction Techniques in Analytical Sciences
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Acronyms, Abbreviations and Symbols.
About the Author.
1 Pre- and Post-Extraction Considerations.
1.2 Organic Compounds of Interest.
1.3 Pre-Sampling Issues.
1.4 Sampling Strategies: Solid, Aqueous and Air Samples.
1.5 An Introduction to Practical Chromatographic Analysis.
1.6 Quality Assurance Aspects.
1.7 Health and Safety Considerations.
2 Classical Approaches for Aqueous Extraction.
2.2 Liquid–Liquid Extraction.
2.3 Purge and Trap for Volatile Organics in Aqueous Samples.
3 Solid Phase Extraction.
3.2 Types of SPE Media (Sorbent).
3.3 SPE Formats and Apparatus.
3.4 Method of SPE Operation.
3.5 Solvent Selection.
3.6 Factors Affecting SPE.
3.7 Selected Methods of Analysis for SPE.
3.8 Automation and On-Line SPE.
4 Solid Phase Microextraction.
4.2 Theoretical Considerations.
4.4 Methods of Analysis: SPME–GC.
4.5 Methods of Analysis: SPME–HPLC–MS.
4.6 Automation of SPME.
5 New Developments in Microextraction.
5.2 Stir-Bar Sorptive Extraction (SBSE).
5.3 Liquid-Phase Microextraction.
5.4 Membrane Microextraction.
5.5 Microextraction in a Packed Syringe (MEPS).
6 Classical Approaches for Solid–Liquid Extraction.
6.2 Soxhlet Extraction.
6.3 Automated Soxhlet Extraction or ‘Soxtec’.
6.4 Other Approaches for Solid–Liquid Extraction.
7 Pressurized Fluid Extraction.
7.2 Theoretical Considerations Relating to the Extraction Process.
7.3 Instrumentation for PFE.
7.4 Method Development for PFE.
7.5 Applications of PFE.
7.6 Comparative Studies.
8 Microwave-Assisted Extraction.
8.3 Applications of MAE.
9 Matrix Solid Phase Dispersion.
9.2 Issues on the Comparison of MSPD and SPE.
9.3 A Review of Selected Applications.
10 Supercritical Fluid Extraction.
10.2 Instrumentation for SFE.
10.3 Applications of SFE.
10.4 Selection of SFE Operating Parameters.
11 Air Sampling.
11.2 Techniques Used for Air Sampling.
COMPARISON OF EXTRACTION METHODS.
12 Comparison of Extraction Methods.
12.2 Role of Certified Reference Materials.
12.3 Comparison of Extraction Techniques for (Semi)-Solid Samples.
12.4 Comparison of Extraction Techniques for Liquid Samples.
12.5 Comparison of Extraction Techniques for Air Sampling.
13 Resources for Extraction Techniques.
13.2 Role of Worldwide Web.
Responses to Self-Assessment Questions.
Glossary of Terms.
SI Units and Physical Constants.