Climate Change: Causes, Effects, and Solutions
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Section I Climate Change – Past, Present, and Future.
1. Earth and the Greenhouse Effect.
The Greenhouse Effect.
Large-Scale Heat Redistribution.
2. Past Climate Change: Lessons From History.
Past Climate Change – Six Historic Periods.
Methods of Determining Past Climates and Ecosystems.
Rapid Climate Change.
Lessons of Past Climate Change.
3. Recent Climate Change: The Earth Responds.
Water Vapor and Precipitation.
Clouds and Temperature Ranges.
Ocean Circulation Patterns.
Snow and Ice.
4. Future Climate Change: The Twenty-First Century and Beyond.
Global Climate Models.
Feedback Loops and Uncertainties.
Scenario-Based Climate Predictions.
Regional Climates and Extreme Events.
The Persistence of a Warmer Earth.
Section II Ecological Effects on Climate Change.
5. Effects on Freshwater Systems.
Surface and Groundwater.
Drought and Soil Moisture.
Lake and Stream Biota.
6. Effects on Terrestrial Ecosystems.
Geographic Shifts in Terrestrial Habitats.
Effects of Disturbances.
Loss of Biodiversity.
Implications for Forest Management and Conservation Policy.
7. Climate Change and Agriculture.
Effects of Agriculture on Climate Change.
Effects of Climate Change on Agriculture.
8. Climate Change and the Marine Environment.
Ocean Currents and Circulation.
Section III Human Dimensions of Climate Change.
9. Impacts on Human Settlement and Infrastructure.
Extreme Climatic Events.
10. Effects of Climate Change on Human Health.
Direct Effects of Heat Stress.
Interactions and Secondary Effects.
11. Mitigation: Reducing the Impacts.
Capture or Sequester Carbon Emissions.
Reduce Global Warming or Its Effects by Geoengineering.
Enhance Natural Carbon Sinks.
Convert to Carbon-Free and Renewable Energy Technologies.
Conserve Energy and Use It More Efficiently.
Adapt to Climate Change.
12. Policy, Politics, and Economics of Climate Change.
International Cooperation – From Montreal to Kyoto.
Meeting Kyoto Targets.
The Politics of Climate Change.
Kyoto Without the United States.
Benefits and Costs of Mitigating Climate Change.
The Future – What is Needed?
Appendix A: Units.
Appendix B: Abbreviations and Chemical Symbols.
Appendix C: Websites on Climate Change