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Physiology and Behaviour of Plants

ISBN: 978-0-470-85024-4
318 pages
March 2008
Physiology and Behaviour of Plants (0470850248) cover image
Physiology and Behaviour of Plants looks at plants and how they sense and respond to their environment. It takes the traditional plant physiology book into a new dimension by demonstrating how the biochemical observations underlie the behaviour of the plant. In many ways the book parallels courses studied at university on animal physiology and behaviour. The plant has to meet the same challenges as an animal to survive, but overcomes these challenges in very different ways. Students learn to think of plants not only as dynamic organisms, but aggressive, territorial organisms capable of long-range communication.

Hallmark features include:

  • Based on a successful course that the author has run for several years at Sussex University, UK
  • Relates plant biochemistry to plant function
  • Printed in four colour throughout
  • Includes a wealth of illustrations and photographs that engages the reader’s attention and reinforce key concepts explored within the text
  • Presents material in a modern ‘topic’ based approach, with many relevant and exciting examples to inspire the student
  • An accompanying web site will include teaching supplements

This innovative textbook is the ultimate resource for all students in biology, horticulture, forestry and agriculture. 

Companion website for this title is available at  www.wiley.com/go/scott/plants

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Chapter 1 Introducing Plants.

Introduction.

The beginning: the evolution of plants and the major divisions.

Conquering the land.

The evolution of lignin.

Plants and mass extinction.

Floristic kingdoms, Biogeography and Biomes.

What makes a plant?

Structure of the whole plant.

Structure of the plant cell.

The chloroplast.

The vacuole.

Microbodies.

The cell wall.

Plasmodesmata.

References.

Figure Legends.

Chapter 2 Photosynthesis the ultimate in autotrophy.

Introduction.

Light harvesting .

Leaf form.

Chlorophyll and the chloroplast.

Converting light energy into chemical energy.

The Calvin cycle.

Photorespiration.

Carbohydrate synthesis and storage.

The fate of carbon fixed during photosynthesis.

The efficiency of photosynthesis.

References.

Figure Legends.

Chapter 3 Nonphotosynthetic metabolism.

Introduction.

Phloem transport.

Structure of the phloem.

Coping with damage to the phloem.

The sink tissues.

Sink regulation of photosynthesis.

References.

Figure Legends.

Chapter 4 Roots and the uptake of water.

Introduction.

Types of root.

Functions of roots.

Structure of roots.

Osmosis.

Loading and movement in the xylem.

Stomata.

References.

Figure legends.

Chapter 5 Mineral nutrition of plants.

Introduction.

Soil structure and mineral ions.

General ion uptake.

Phosphorus uptake and assimilation.

Nitrogen uptake and assimilation.

Iron uptake and assimilation.

Sulphur uptake and assimilation.

Function and effects of deficiencies of mineral ions on plants.

Major elements.

Minor elements.

References.

Figure legends.

Chapter 6 Mycorrhizal Associations and Saprophytic Nutrition.

Introduction.

Mycorrhizal associations.

Vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal associations.

Orchidaceous mycorrhizal associations.

Ectomycorrhiza.

Ericaceous mycorrhiza.

Ectendomycorrhiza.

Development of the mycorrhizal association.

The role of the mycorrhizal association.

Saprophytic nutrition.

References.

Figure Legends.

Chapter 7 Parasitic plants.

Introduction.

Establishing a parasitic relationship.

Facultative parasitic plants.

Obligate parasitic plants, hemi-parasites.

Obligate parasitic plants, holo-parasites.

Parasitic species other than the dicotyledons.

References.

Tables.

Figure Legends.

Chapter 8 Carnivorous Plants.

Introduction.

Carnivory: the search for a definition.

Why have some plants turned to carnivory?

Bladderworts (genus Utricularia).

Sundews (genus Drosera).

References.

Background general reading.

Figure Legends.

Chapter 9 Asexual and Sexual Reproduction.

Introduction.

Asexual Reproduction.

Roots.

Stems.

Leaves.

Apomixis.

Sexual Reproduction.

Wind based pollination.

Insect based pollination.

Pollination.

Mechanisms for improving cross fertilisation.

Self incompatibility mechanisms.

Trifolium repens

Apple (Malus).

Papaver rhoeas.

Petunia hybrida.

Petunia inflata.

Seed development.

References.

Figure Legends.

Chapter 10 Plant growth.

Introduction.

Types of growth.

Cell division and the cell cycle.

Polyploidy in plants.

Seed formation and germination.

The dividing meristem.

Flower development.

Vascular cambium and secondary growth.

Intercalary meristem.

Cell death.

Plant growth regulators and cell growth.

References.

Figure Legends.

Chapter 11 Plant Movement.

Introduction.

Tropism and nastic movements.

Tropic movements.

Nastic movements.

Circumnutation.

References.

Figure Legends.

Chapter 12 Plants and stress.

Introduction.

Adaptations to drought stress.

Crassulacean acid metabolism.

C4 photosynthesis.

Resurrection plants.

Salt stress.

Flooding stress and anoxia.

Cold stress.

Adaptations to heat stress.

References.

Chapter 13 Plant senses and perceiving the world.

Introduction.

Sensing light (sight).

Protochlorophyllide.

Phytochromes.

Cryptochrome.

Sensing time.

Circadian clock.

Photoperiodism.

Sensing touch (feeling).

Sensing chemicals (taste).

Communicating (smell).

Sensing sounds (hearing).

References.

Table 1. Ratios of red to far-red light in different environments. The data is based on that reported by Hopkins (1999).

Figure Legends..

Chapter 14 Seed dispersal, dormancy and germination.

Introduction.

Seed dispersal.

Gravity-mediated dispersal.

Wind-mediated dispersal.

Water-mediated dispersal.

Animal-mediated dispersal.

Importance of post-dispersal mechanisms.

Dormancy and germination.

Recalcitrant seeds.

Dormant seeds.

Factors governing dormancy and germination.

Presence of germination inhibitors.

Presence of inhibitory tissues.

Presence of germination promoters.

References.

Figure Legends.

Chapter 15 Interactions with the Animal Kingdom.

Introduction.

Animal mediated pollination.

Mimicry in plants.

Batesian mimicry.

Müllerian mimicry.

Aggressive mimicry.

Seed dispersal and food reserves: the role of humans.

References.

Figure Legends.

Chapter 16 Plant defences.

Introduction.

Physical defence structures.

The cuticle.

The cell wall.

The cell wall as a passive barrier.

The cell wall as an active barrier.

Poisons by injection or touch.

Chemical defences.

Terpenes.

Nitrogen-containing organic compounds.

Cyanogenic glycosides.

Glycosinolates.

Lectins.

Alkaloids.

Defence reactions and signal pathways.

Jasmonic acid.

Salicylic acid.

Systemin.

Phytoalexins.

Allelopathy.

Recognising self.

Mimicry and the enrolment of other organisms for protection.

References.

Figure Legends.

Chapter 17 Plants and Medicines.

Introduction.

Doctrine of signatures.

Viper’s bugloss (Echium vulgare).

Ethnobotany.

The origins of aspirin.

The origins of antimalarial drugs.

St John’s Wort (Hypericum spp.).

Natural alternatives to Viagra.

Natural treatments for AIDS.

A cure for certain cancers.

Sustainable development of medicines from plants.

References.

Figure legends.

Chapter 18 Plant Tissue Culture and the Rise of Plant Biotechnology.

Introduction.

The development of plant tissue culture media.

Components of the medium.

Major elements.

Minor elements.

Carbohydrates.

Vitamins.

Plant growth regulators.

Tissue culture sterility.

Types of plant tissue culture.

Applications of plant tissue culture.

References.

Figure legends..

Chapter 19 Remarkable Plants.

Introduction.

Insect mimicry in the Orchidaceae.

The Venus Flytrap.

The oldest and biggest plants in the world.

Tallest plants.

Cycads.

Welwitschia mirabilis and Ephedra viridis.

The Castor bean plant.

Garlic.

Theobroma cacao.

Wheat and agriculture.

References.

Figure legends.

Index.

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Having first been excited by the complexity and beauty of the plant kingdom as a student in Cambridge, Peter Scott is now Senior Lecturer in Plant Biology at the University of Sussex, where his research interests include orchids, resurrection plants and helping students to understand the wonder of the natural world around them.
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  • Based on a successful course that the author has run for several years at Sussex University, UK
  • Relates plant biochemistry to plant function
  • Printed in four colour throughout
  • Includes a wealth of illustrations and photographs that engages the reader’s attention and reinforce key concepts explored within the text
  • Presents material in a modern ‘topic’ based approach, with many relevant and exciting examples to inspire the student
  • An accompanying web site will include teaching supplements
See More
"This book, with Scott's enthusiasm and clear writing style, offers a refreshing approach to introductory plant biology. Recommended." (CHOICE, March 2009)

“Author Peter Scott's approach is to present basic concepts of plant physiology and development in an enthusiastic and engaging manner. Hence, he tries to use his passion for his subject to be an effective teacher, and his enthusiasm is evident throughout the book. One of the clear strengths of this book are the high quality color diagrams. I enjoyed reading … and came away with good ideas for new approaches to teaching topics in plant biology. The book could be useful in a number of courses in botany and plant biology at the freshman and sophomore level.” (Plant Science Bulletin, Winter 2008)

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