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Additives in Polymers: Industrial Analysis and Applications

ISBN: 978-0-470-85062-6
836 pages
March 2005
Additives in Polymers: Industrial Analysis and Applications (0470850620) cover image


This industrially relevant resource covers all established and emerging analytical methods for the deformulation of polymeric materials, with emphasis on the non-polymeric components.
  • Each technique is evaluated on its technical and industrial merits.
  • Emphasis is on understanding (principles and characteristics) and industrial applicability.
  • Extensively illustrated throughout with over 200 figures, 400 tables, and 3,000 references.
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Table of Contents



About the Author.


Chapter 1: Introduction.

1.1 Additives.

1.2 Plastics formulations .

1.3 Economic impact of polymer additives.

1.4 Analysis of plastics.

1.5 Bibliography.

1.6 References.

Chapter 2: Deformulation Principles.

2.1 Polymer identification.

2.2 Additive analysis of rubbers: ‘Best Practice’.

2.3 Polymer extract analysis.

2.4 In situ polymer/additive analysis.

2.5 Class-specific polymer/additive analysis.

2.6 Bibliography.

2.7 References.

Chapter 3: Sample Preparation Perspectives.

3.1 Solvents.

3.2 Extraction strategy.

3.3 Conventional extraction technologies.

3.4 High-pressure solvent extraction methods.

3.5 Sorbent extraction.

3.6 Methodological comparison of extraction methods.

3.7 Polymer/additive dissolution methods.

3.8 Hydrolysis.

3.9 Bibliography.

3.10 References.

Chapter 4: Separation Techniques.

4.1 Analytical detectors.

4.2 Gas chromatography.

4.3 Supercritical fluid chromatography.

4.4 Liquid chromatography techniques.

4.5 Capillary electrophoretic techniques.

4.6 Bibliography.

4.7 References.

Chapter 5: Polymer/Additive Analysis: The Spectroscopic Alternative.

5.1 Ultraviolet/visible spectrophotometry.

5.2 Infrared spectroscopy.

5.3 Luminescence spectroscopy.

5.4 High-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

5.5 Bibliography.

5.6 References.

Chapter 6: Organic Mass-Spectrometric Methods.

6.1 Basic instrumentation.

6.2 Ion sources.

6.3 Mass analysers.

6.4 Direct mass-spectrometric polymer compound analysis.

6.5 Ion mobility spectrometry.

6.6 Bibliography.

6.7 References.

Chapter 7: Multihyphenation and Multidimensionality in Polymer/Additive Analysis.

7.1 Precolumn hyphenation.

7.2 Coupled sample preparation – spectroscopy/spectrometry.

7.3 Postcolumn hyphenation.

7.4 Multidimensional chromatography.

7.5 Multidimensional spectroscopy.

7.6 Bibliography.

7.7 References.

Chapter 8: Inorganic and Element Analytical Methods.

8.1 Element analytical protocols.

8.2 Sample destruction for classical elemental analysis.

8.3 Analytical atomic spectrometry.

8.4 X-ray spectrometry.

8.5 Inorganic mass spectrometry.

8.6 Radioanalytical and nuclear analytical methods.

8.7 Electroanalytical techniques.

8.8 Solid-state speciation analysis.

8.9 Bibliography.

8.10 References.

Chapter 9: Direct Methods of Deformulation of Polymer/Additive Dissolutions.

9.1 Chromatographic methods.

9.2 Spectroscopic techniques.

9.3 Mass-spectrometric methods.

9.4 References.

Chapter 10: A Vision for the Future.

10.1 Trends in polymer technology.

10.2 Trends in additive technology.

10.3 Environmental, legislative and regulatory constraints.

10.4 Analytical consequences.

10.5 Epilogue.

10.6 Bibliography.

10.7 References.

Appendix I: List of Symbols.

Appendix II: Functionality of Common Additives Used in Commercial Thermoplastics, Rubbers and Thermosetting Resins.

Appendix III: Specimen Polymer Additives Product Sheets.


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Author Information

Jan C.J. Bart (PhD Structural Chemistry, University of Amsterdam) is a senior scientist with broad interest in materials characterisation, heterogeneous catalysis and product development who spent an industrial carrier in R&D with Monsanto, Montedison and DSM Research in various countries. The author has held several teaching assignments and researched extensively in both academic and industrial areas; he authored over 250 scientific papers, including chapters in books. Dr Bart has acted as a Ramsay Memorial Fellow at the Universities of Leeds (Colour Chemistry) and Oxford (Material Science), a visiting scientist at Institut de Recherches sur la Catalyse (CNRS, Villeurbanne), and a Meyerhoff Visiting Professor at WIS (Rehovoth), and held an Invited Professorship at USTC (Hefei). He is currently a Full Professor of Industrial Chemistry at the University of Messina.
He is also a member of the Royal Society of Chemistry, Royal Dutch Chemical Society, Society of Plastic Engineers and The Institute of Materials.
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"This book tries to cover the whole subject, and I acknowledge that this difficult goal has been…fully achieved." (Polymer News, September 2005)

"...provides comprehensive coverage of the current status of the (qualitative and quantitative) analysis techniques for additive determination in commercial polymers..." (Apollit, 2005)

"...the author has done a marvellous job in bringing together such a wealth of information in one volume..." (Polymer International, Vol 54 (10), October 2005)

"Coupled with its readability and extensive bibliography, this book will be a valuable reference work for those working in many areas" (Society of Chemical Industry (SCI) 2006)

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