Urbanism: Imported or Exported?
The modes of diffusion of ideas that shape planned environments, and the ways these ideas are realized, have been gaining prominence as subjects of study and discussion among planning historians and others. Recently, some researchers have begun to approach the relations between actors and stakeholders in the processes of planning diffusion in increasingly complex and ambiguous ways.
The natives in developing countries, whether colonial or post-colonial, are now being recognized as full-fledged participants in the shaping of the built environment, with a variety of roles to play and means to play them, even if they frequently face many constraints to their actions. The specific traits of the indigenous are even in question: ultimately, who are the ‘locals’?
The research presented here recognises the importance of both provider and recipient as essential and influential entities within this diffusion process.
This book raises important conceptual questions as to the identities and roles of the actors involved and looks at the methodological implications for historians and the new challenges that arise from this questioning of a long-standing traditional view.
Introduction: Transporting Planning xi
JOE NASR AND MERCEDES VOLAIT
Chapter 1 Writing Transnational Planning Histories 1
ANTHONY D. KING
PART 1 THE LATEST MODELS 15
Chapter 2 Making Cairo Modern (1870–1950): Multiple Models for a ‘European-style’ Urbanism 17
Chapter 3 The Transformation of Planning Ideas in Japan and its Colonies 51
Chapter 4 Learning from the US: the Americanisation of Western Urban Planning 83
STEPHEN V. WARD
PART 2 CITY-BUILDING, STATE-BUILDING AND NATION-BUILDING 107
Chapter 5 Urbanism as Social Engineering in the Balkans: Reform Prospects and Implementation Problems in
Chapter 6 From ‘Cosmopolitan Fantasies’ to ‘National Traditions’: Socialist Realism in East Berlin 128
ROLAND W. STROBEL
Chapter 7 The Preservation of Egyptian Cultural Heritage through Egyptian Eyes: The Case of the Comité de Conservation des Monuments de l’Art Arabe 155
PART 3 POWERFUL SUBJECTS 185
Chapter 8 From Europe to Tripoli in Barbary, via Istanbul: Municipal Reforms in an Outpost of the Ottoman
Empire around 1870 187
Chapter 9 Beirut and the Étoile Area: An Exclusively French Project? 206
Chapter 10 Local Wishes and National Commands: Planning Continuity in French Provincial Towns in the 1940s 230
PART 4 FOREIGN EXPERTS, LOCAL PROFESSIONALS 263
Chapter 11 Foreign Hires: French Experts and the Urbanism of Buenos Aires, 1907–32 265
Chapter 12 Politics, Ideology and Professional Interests: Foreign versus Local Planners in Lebanon under President Chehab 290
Chapter 13 Towards Global Human Settlements: Constantinos Doxiadis as Entrepreneur, Coalition-Builder and Visionary 316
Contributors Biographies 341