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Introduction to Microdisplays

ISBN: 978-0-470-85281-1
396 pages
October 2006
Introduction to Microdisplays (047085281X) cover image


Microdisplays are tiny, high-resolution electronic displays, designed for use in magnifying optical systems such as HDTV projectors and near-eye personal viewers. As a result of research and development into this field, Microdisplays are   incorporated in a variety of visual electronics, notably new 3G portable communications devices, digital camera technologies, wireless internet applications, portable DVD viewers and wearable PCs.


Introduction to Microdisplays encapsulates this market through describing in detail the theory, structure, fabrication and applications of Microdisplays. In particular this book:

  • Provides excellent reference material for the Microdisplay industry through including an overview of current applications alongside a guide to future developments in the field
  • Covers all current technologies and devices such as Silicon Wafer Backplane Technology, Liquid Crystal Devices, Micromechanical Devices, and the emerging area of Organic Light Emitting Diodes
  • Presents guidance on the design of applications of Microdisplays, including Microdisplays for defence and telecoms, from basic principles through to their performance limitations

Introduction to Microdisplays is a thorough and comprehensive reference on this emerging topic. It is essential reading for display technology manufacturers, developers, and system integrators, as well as practising electrical engineers, physicists, chemists and specialists in the display field. Graduate students, researchers, and developers working in optics, material science, and telecommunications will also find this a valuable resource.

The Society for Information Display (SID) is an international society, which has the aim of encouraging the development of all aspects of the field of information display. Complementary to the aims of the society, the Wiley-SID series is intended to explain the latest developments in information display technology at a professional level. The broad scope of the series addresses all facets of information displays from technical aspects through systems and prototypes to standards and ergonomics

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Table of Contents

Series Editor’s Foreword.


1. Introduction.

1.1 Microdisplays.

1.2 Human Factors.

1.3 Display Specifications.

1.4 Displays in General.

1.5 Microdisplay Evolution.

1.6 Microdisplay Applications.

2 Electronic Addressing.

2.1 Introduction.

2.2 MOS Transistor.

2.3 LCOS System Electronics Architecture.

2.4 Analogue Pixel Drive Schemes for Analogue Electro-Optic Response.

2.5 Digital Electronic Drive Schemes for Analog Electro-Optical Response.

2.6 Digital Pixel Drive Schemes for Binary Electro-Optical Response.

2.7 DMD Microdisplay Circuit.

2.8 OLED Microdisplay Circuits.

2.9 Photo-Addressing.

3 Silicon Backplane Technology.

3.1 Introduction.

3.2 CMOS Technology.

3.3 CMOS for microdisplays.

3.4 Wafer and die bow.

3.5 Surface planarization.

3.6 Pixel storage.

3.7 Light blocking.

3.8 Mirror quality.

3.9 Pixel gap fill.

3.10 LC Cell gap.

3.11 LCoS CMOS summary.

3.12 Backplane technology for other microdisplays.

3.13 Silicon Technology Roadmap.

3.14 Cost of silicon.

3.15 Summary.

4 Transmission Microdisplays Structure.

4.1 Background.

4.2 Thin film transistors.

4.3 Polysilicon.

4.4 Polysilicon microdisplay.

4.5 Transferred silicon.

4.6 Silicon-on-sapphire.

5 Transmission Liquid Crystal Microdisplays.

5.1 Introduction.

5.2 TFT-LCD.

5.3 Projection System.

5.4 Twisted-Nematic Cells.

5.5 Vertically-Aligned Nematic (VAN) Cells.

5.6 Fringing Field Effect.

5.7 Liquid crystal ionic effects.

6 Reflective Liquid Crystal Microdisplays.

6.1 Introduction.

6.2 Normally Black Homeotropic Cell.

6.3 Normally White Homogenous Cell.

6.4 Reflective TN Cells.

6.5 Normally White 90o MTN Cell.

6.6 Normally White 63.6o MTN Cell.

6.7 Normally Black 63.6o TN Cell.

6.8 Normally White 60o MTN Cell.

6.9 Normally White 45o MTN Cell.

6.10 Normally Black 45o TN.

6.11 Finger-On-Plane Structure.

6.12 Scattering and Diffractive Microdisplays.

6.13 Ferroelectric Liquid Crystals.

7 LCD Assembly and Test.

7.1 Background.

7.2 Back end processing.

7.3 Assembly components.

7.4 Assembly methods.

7.5 Test.

8 Micromechanical Devices.

8.1 Background.

8.2 Digital Mirror Device.

8.3 Piezoelectric Micromirror.

8.4 Grating Light Valve.

8.5 Interference modulation.

8.6 Further development.

9 Emissive Microdisplays.

9.1 Introduction.

9.2 Organic Emissive Materials.

9.3 Device Construction & Manufacture.

9.4 Device Characteristics.

9.5 Color.

9.6 OLED Microdisplays.

9.7 Other Emissive Microdisplays.

9.8 Summary.

10 Projection Displays.

10.1 Background.

10.2 Throughput.

10.3 Laser and LED sources.

10.4 Arc Lamps.

10.5 Polarizing Optics.

10.6 Color management.

10.7 Schlieren projector.

10.8 Laser scanning.

10.9 Projector Performance.

11 Near-Eye Systems.

11.1 Background.

11.2 Magnification.

11.3 Field of View.

11.4 Microdisplay Factors.

11.5 Magnifiers.

11.6 Camera Viewfinder.

11.7 Head mounted displays.

11.8 Free-surface prisms.

11.9 Eyewear-based displays.

11.10 Light-guide System.

11.11 Wide field of view.

11.12 Portable Equipment.

Table of Symbols.

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Author Information

 David Armitage, Consultant, Los Altos, CA94024, USA

Dr Ian Underwood, Reader, Dept of Electrical Engineering, The University of Edinburgh, King's Buildings, Mayfield Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JL,  Scotland

Dr Shin-Tson Wu, Provost Professor of Optics, University of Central Florida, School of Optics – CREOL, 4000 Central Florida Boulevard PO Box 162700, Orlando, Florida 32816-2700, USA

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