Electricity Power Generation: The Changing Dimensions
September 2011, Wiley-IEEE Press
1. Electricity History—A Review of the Road Ahead.
1.1 History of Growth of the Electricity Business.
1.2 Innovative Technology Developments and Growth of Conglomerates.
1.3 Economic Growth—GDP and Electricity Consumption.
1.4 Monopolies Develop Built-In Defects.
1.5 Breakup of Bell Systems Leads to Unbundling.
1.6 Importance of Renewable Energy Recognized—Wind Energy Becomes a Challenger.
1.7 Structural Changes.
1.8 Cost Breakdown in the Old Model.
1.9 Step-by-Step Restructuring.
1.10 The New Decision Authorities.
1.11 Open Power Marketing Now Rerestructuring Electricity Power System.
2. Risks, Operation, and Maintenance of Hydroelectric Generators.
2.1 The Present Scenario.
2.2 Types and Sizes of Hydroelectricity Projects.
2.3 Advantages of Hydroelectricity.
2.4 Slow progress of Hydroelectricity Projects.
2.5 Factors Propelling the Phased Progress of the Hydroelectric Industry.
2.6 Hydro Projects Fall Short of Attracting Private Investment.
2.7 Dam Building Progress Over a Century.
2.8 Desirable Configuration for Hydro Projects to Attract Private Investment.
2.9 Operation of a Hydroelectric Plant.
2.10 Unit Allocation within a Large HE Plant.
2.11 Speed Control of a Water Turbine.
2.12 Startup Process for a WTG.
2.13 Speed Controls are Rigid.
2.14 Speed Increase Due to Sudden Load Cutoff.
2.15 Frequency and Harmonic Behavior After a Sudden Load Rejection.
2.16 Effect of Penstock Pressure Pulsations.
2.17 AC Excitation of Rotor Field.
2.18 Unit Commitment from Hydroelectric Generators, Including Pumped Storage Systems.
2.19 ICMMS of Hydroelectric Generating Units.
2.20 Controls and Communications in hydro Systems.
2.21 General Maintenance.
2.22 Limitations of Scheduled and Breakdown Maintenance.
2.23 Reactive Maintenance—Key Elements.
2.24 Key Components of an ICMMS—Case of a Hydroelectric System.
2.25 Intelligent Electrohydraulic Servomechanism.
2.26 Online Monitoring and Forecasting.
2.27 Subsynchronous Resonance (SSR) and Twisting of Rotor Shafts.
3. Hydroelectric Generation—Pumped Storage, Minor Hydroelectric, and Oceanic-Based Systems.
3.1 Water as an Energy Supplier and an Energy Store.
3.2 Pumped Water Storage System for Electricity Generation.
3.3 Operation of a Pumped Storage System.
3.4 Pumped Storage Systems Have Limited Scope.
3.5 Pumped Storage Systems and Wind Energy.
3.6 Small Hydroelectric Plants (SHPs).
3.7 Types of SHP Projects—Sizes.
3.8 Location-Wise Designations of SHPs.
3.9 Components of an SHP.
3.10 Typical Layouts Of SHPs.
3.11 Project Costs of an SHP.
3.12 Drawing Electricity from the Ocean.
3.13 Underwater Turbine and Column-Mounted Generator.
3.14 Wave Energy.
4. Thermal Power Generation—Steam Generators.
4.1 Thermal Electricity Generation Has the Largest Share—The Present Scenario.
4.2 Planning of Thermal Stations—Risks and Challenges.
4.3 Cost Breakdown and Consumption Pattern of Electricity.
4.4 Main Energy Suppliers.
4.5 Workings of a Coal-Fired Steam Generator Unit.
4.6 Types of Boilers.
4.7 Classification of Generating Units.
4.8 Combined-Cycle Power Plant (CCPP).
5. Thermal Station Power Engineering.
5.1 Start-Up Process of a CCPP.
5.2 Short-Term Dynamic Response of a CCPP to Frequency Variation.
5.3 Cascade Tripping of a CCPP Due to Frequency Excursion.
5.4 Operation Planning to Meet Load Demands—Flow Diagram.
5.5 Capacity Curves for Thermal Electricity Generation.
5.6 Operational Economy Includes Fuel Considerations.
5.7 Efficiency in Operating Practices.
5.8 Ancillary Services Compulsorily.
5.9 Changing Performance Requirements for Thermal Plant Operators.
5.10 Expanding Grids Demand Tight Frequency Tolerances.
5.11 Reserves are Important in Frequency Control.
5.12 Reserves Based on Droop Characteristic.
5.13 Primary Frequency Control.
5.14 Secondary Frequency Control (SFC).
5.15 Tertiary Frequency Control.
5.16 Rigid Frequency Controls are Bringing in Changes.
5.17 Voltage Control Services.
5.18 Voltage Measurement at POD into the Transmission System.
5.19 Attractive Market Prices Lead to Reserves Over and Above the Compulsory Limits.
5.20 Importance of Operating Frequency Limits for a Thermal Generator.
5.21 System Protection.
5.22 Maintenance Practices.
5.23 Challenges in Meeting Environmental Obligations.
5.24 MHD Generators.
6. Environmental Constraints in Thermal Power Generation— Acid Rain.
6.1 Introduction to Acid Rain and Carbon Emissions.
6.2 World Concern Over Environmental Pollution and Agreements to Control It.
6.3 U.S. Clean Air Act and Amendments.
6.4 Complying with Constraints on the SO2 Emission Rate.
6.5 Surcharges on Emissions.
6.6 Complying with Constraints on Denitrifying.
6.7 Continuous-Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS).
6.8 The European Systems: Helsinki Protocol on SO2 and Sofia Protocol on NOx.
6.9 The Japanese Example—City-Wise and Comprehensive.
6.10 A Plant Running Out of Emission Allowances.
6.11 NOx Permits are Projected as Important Players in Price Fixing of Power in a Free Market.
6.12 Air Pollution by Carbon Dioxide—CO2.
7. Environmental Constraints in Thermal Power Generation—Carbon and the Kyoto Proposals.
7.1 Continuing Growth of CO2 in the Air.
7.2 Co2 from Different Fuels.
7.3 CO2 Emission by Fuel Type.
7.4 Coal has the Highest Rate of Growth Among Energy Suppliers.
7.5 Earth’s Oceans and Seas Absorb CO2.
7.6 Developments on the Front of Reduction in Greenhouse Gas Emissions.
7.7 Kyoto Proposals.
7.8 Clause 1 of Kyoto Protocol of 1998.
7.9 Original Kyoto Proposals.
7.10 Proposals for Parties to the 2007 Protocol.
7.11 Project Report Needs.
7.12 An Illustrative Validation Report.
7.13 A Workout for Emission Factors and Emissions for a Hydro and for a Wind Energy Installation.
7.14 Open Skies Divided in Tons of CO2 Per Nation.
7.15 An example of Baseline and Emission Reductions.
7.16 Methodological Tools to Calculate the Baseline and Emission Factor.
7.17 Tool to Calculate the Emission Factor for an Electricity System.
7.18 Simple Operating Margins.
7.19 Incentives for Emission Reduction.
8. Nuclear Power Generation.
8.1 Nuclear Power Generation Process in Brief.
8.2 Rise, Fall, and Renaissance of Nuclear Power Plants.
8.3 Power Uprates.
8.4 Advantages of Nuclear Plants.
8.5 Some Types of Nuclear Power Reactors.
8.6 Other Types from Different Countries.
8.7 Planning of NP Plants.
8.8 Financial Risks in Planning.
8.9 Operation of NP Plants.
8.10 Safety Measures to Prevent Explosion in a Reactor Vessel.
8.11 Prevention of Accidents.
8.12 Class IE Equipment and Distribution Systems—Ungrounded Earthing Systems.
8.13 Environmental Considerations—Radiation Hazard.
8.14 Waste Management.
8.15 Environmental Benefits.
8.16 Challenges for Research.
8.17 Rapid Increase in Population Expected.
8.18 Fast Breeder Reactors.
9 Wind Power Generation.
9.1 Introduction to Wind.
9.2 Operation of Wind Turbine Generators.
9.3 Connection of Wind Energy Plants to the Grid—The Grid Code.
9.4 American Grid Code.
9.5 A Resistive Braking of a WTG.
9.6 Power and PF Control.
9.7 Modeling of a Wind Turbine Generator.
9.8 Economics of Wind Energy.
9.9 Capacity Factor of a WTG.
9.10 Capacity Credit Considerations.
9.11 Capacity Factor for WECs in a Hybrid System.
9.12 Wind Penetration Limit.
9.13 Wind Power Proportion.
9.14 Wind Integration Cost in United States.
9.15 Wind Energy Farms.
9.16 Promoting Growth of Wind Electricity.
9.17 Maintenance of WTG.
9.18 UNFCCC and Wind Energy.
10. Photovoltaic Energy—Solar Cells and Solar Power Systems.
10.1 Photovoltaic Energy—How it Works.
10.2 Advantages of Photovoltaic Energy.
10.3 Disadvantages of PV Energy.
10.4 Solar Thermal Density—Insolation.
10.5 Output of a PV Cell.
10.6 Variation with Ambient Temperature.
10.7 Voltage-Versus-Current Characteristics of a Solar Cell.
10.8 Matching the PV with the Load.
10.9 Old Working Model of an MPPT.
10.10 Maximizing the Output of a Solar Panel.
10.11 Interface with a Power System.
10.12 Power Conditioning Systems.
10.13 Super Capacitors and Storage Batteries.
10.14 NERC Guidelines for Connecting a PV Systm to a Grid.
10.15 Problems of Interfacing PV Systems with the Grid.
10.16 Penetration Percentage by a PV Energy System into a Utility Grid.
10.17 Progress in Application of PV Energy.
11. Direct Conversion into Electricity—Fuel Cells.
11.1 Fuel Cells Bypass Intermediate Steps in the Production of Electrical Energy.
11.2 Working of a Fuel Cell.
11.3 A Reformer for Getting Hydrogen From Methane.
11.4 Fuels for a Fuel Cell.
11.5 Fuel Cells on the Forefront of Development.
11.6 Comparison between Fuel Cells.
11.7 Typical Characteristics of Various Fuel Cells.
11.8 Developments in Fuel Cells.
11.9 Applications of Fuel Cells.
11.10 An SOFC–Gas Turbine System.
11.11 Efficiencies of Various Systems in Thermal Power Generation Technologies.
12. Hybrid Systems.
12.1 Coupling of Energy Sources.
12.2 What Exactly are Hybrids?
12.3 Stand-Alone Hybrid Power Systems.
12.4 Use of Renewable Sources of Energy in Mexico—San Antonio Aqua Bendita.
12.5 Some Definitions.
12.6 Cost Balance Between PV Cells and Storage Batteries.
12.7 Hybrids Incorporating Fuel Cells.
12.8 Midsea Hybrids.
12.9 Workings of a WTG and Diesel Generator.
12.10 Wind Energy Penetration Limit.
12.11 Wind Power–Fuel Cell Hybrids.
12.12 Interfacing Nonconventional Energy Sources with Utility Systems–Static Power Controllers (SPCs).
12.13 Protective Controls Between a Utility and a Newcomer.
13. Combined Generation—Cogeneration.
13.1 Definition and Scope.
13.2 Rise of Cogeneration.
13.3 Basic Purpose of Cogeneration.
13.4 Three Types of Cogenerators.
13.5 Advantages Offered by Cogeneration.
13.6 Planning of Cogeneration.
13.7 Economic Objectives for a Cogenerator.
13.8 Operation of Cogenerators.
13.9 Working Together with Cogeneration.
13.10 Islanding of Cogeneration Section.
13.11 Environmental Considerations.
13.12 Cogeneration in Brazil.
14. Distributed Generation (DG) and Distributed Resources (DR).
14.1 Definition and Scope.
14.2 Who are the Players in Distribution Generation?
14.3 Prominent Features of DRs.
14.4 Types of DGs.
14.5 Push Factors, Stay-Put Costs, and Investment Prospects for Electricity.
14.6 Investment Options.
14.7 Planning Sites for a DG.
14.8 Operation of DGs in an Electric Power System.
14.9 Islanding of an EPS Section from the Main Body.
14.10 Allowable Penetration Levels by DRs.
14.11 Synchronous Generator as a DG with Excitation Controls.
14.12 How Can a DG Earn Profits?
14.13 Scope for Gas-Based DGs.
14.14 Diesel Generators.
14.15 Evaluation of Service Rendered by Stand-by DGs.
14.16 Reliability Cost for a DG Set.
14.17 Maintenance and Protection of Diesel Generators.
14.18 UK Policy on Generation of Low-Carbon Electricity.
15. Interconnecting Distributed Resources with Electric Power Systems.
15.2 Definitions per IEEE Std 1547-2003.
15.3 DR Ceases to Energize the Area EPS.
15.4 Protective Devices.
15.5 Schematic of an Interconnection Between a DR and an Area EPS.
15.6 Restraints on a DR Operator.
15.7 Responsibilities and Liabilities of EPS Area Operators.
15.8 Power Quality Windows.
15.9 Limitation of DC Injection.
15.10 Islanding of a Local-Area EPS that Includes a DR.
15.12 Safety Aspects.
15.13 Testing of Interconnecting Equipment.
15.14 Interconnections Will be Important in Tomorrow’s Scenario.
16. Energy Storage—Power Storage Super Capacitors.
16.1 Energy Storage and the Future for Renewable Energy Sources.
16.2 Advantages of Energy Storage.
16.3 Factors for Choosing Type and Rating of a Storage System.
16.4 Nature of Support by Electricity Storage Systems.
16.5 Load Density, Short-Circuit Capacity, and Storage of Energy.
16.6 Photovoltaic Energy—PV Energy in Residential Applications.
16.7 Maximum PV Penetration and Maximum Allowable Storage go Hand in Hand.
16.8 Planning the Size of a Store for PV Inclusion in a Distribution System.
16.9 Types of Storage Devices for PV Systems.
16.10 Wind Energy.
16.11 Storage Technologies.
16.12 Determining the Size Storage for Wind Power.
16.13 Control Modes for Stores and WTG.
16.14 Energy Rating of Stores.
16.15 Categories of Energy Storages.
17. Hydrogen Era.
17.1 Fossil-Based Fuels.
17.2 Hydrogen Properties.
17.3 Hydrogen Advantages.
17.4 Production of Hydrogen.
17.5 Potential Market Segments for Hydrogen.
17.6 Present Roadblocks to use of Hydrogen.
17.7 Governments Envision a Hydrogen Era.
17.8 An Example to Consider.
18. Basic Structure of Power Marketing.
18.1 Reconstruction of the Electricity Business.
18.2 Unbundling of Old Monopoly.
18.3 Open Access to Critical Facilities.
18.4 How Does the New System Work?
18.5 Market Participants And Their Functions.
18.6 New Key Personnel.
18.7 Role of a Regulator or Regulatory Commission.
18.8 Tools for the System Operator.
18.9 Secondary Markets.
18.10 Free Market Objectives.
18.11 Success of the Free Market.
18.12 How Do Electricity Markets Operate?
18.13 Flow of Operating Funds.
18.14 Effect of Reconstruction on Electricity Business—Capital Investment Prospects.
18.15 National Grid Transmission System.
19. Looking into the Future.
Digamber M. Tagare is founder and Managing Director of Madhav Capacitors Pvt. Ltd. He is responsible for bringing capacitor manufacturing technology to India, and was awarded with the title of "Father of Capacitor Industries in India" from Indian Electrical and Electronics Manufacturers Association (IEEMA) in 2002. Mr. Tagare has published more than 100 technical papers and four books on capacitors and reactive power management. He is a member of both the National Association of Corrosion Engineers and the Electrical Research Association, as well as a Senior Life Member of the IEEE.