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Formal Methods for Industrial Critical Systems: A Survey of Applications

ISBN: 978-0-470-87618-3
292 pages
December 2012, Wiley-IEEE Computer Society Press
Formal Methods for Industrial Critical Systems: A Survey of Applications (0470876182) cover image
Today, formal methods are widely recognized as an essential step in the design process of industrial safety-critical systems. In its more general definition, the term formal methods encompasses all notations having a precise mathematical semantics, together with their associated analysis methods, that allow description and reasoning about the behavior of a system in a formal manner.

Growing out of more than a decade of award-winning collaborative work within the European Research Consortium for Informatics and Mathematics, Formal Methods for Industrial Critical Systems: A Survey of Applications presents a number of mainstream formal methods currently used for designing industrial critical systems, with a focus on model checking. The purpose of the book is threefold: to reduce the effort required to learn formal methods, which has been a major drawback for their industrial dissemination; to help designers to adopt the formal methods which are most appropriate for their systems; and to offer a panel of state-of-the-art techniques and tools for analyzing critical systems.

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FOREWORD by Mike Hinchey xiii

FOREWORD by Alessandro Fantechi and Pedro Merino xv

PREFACE xvii

CONTRIBUTORS xix

PART I INTRODUCTION AND STATE OF THE ART 1

1 FORMAL METHODS: APPLYING {LOGICS IN, THEORETICAL} COMPUTER SCIENCE 3
Diego Latella

1.1 Introduction and State of the Art 3

1.2 Future Directions 9

PART II MODELING PARADIGMS 15

2 A SYNCHRONOUS LANGUAGE AT WORK: THE STORY OF LUSTRE 17
Nicolas Halbwachs

2.1 Introduction 17

2.2 A Flavor of the Language 18

2.3 The Design and Development of Lustre and Scade 20

2.4 Some Lessons from Industrial Use 25

2.5 And Now . . . 28

3 REQUIREMENTS OF AN INTEGRATED FORMAL METHOD FOR INTELLIGENT SWARMS 33
Mike Hinchey, James L. Rash, Christopher A. Rouff, Walt F. Truszkowski, and Amy K.C.S. Vanderbilt

3.1 Introduction 33

3.2 Swarm Technologies 35

3.3 NASA FAST Project 39

3.4 Integrated Swarm Formal Method 41

3.5 Conclusion 55

PART III TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS 61

4 SOME TRENDS IN FORMAL METHODS APPLICATIONS TO RAILWAY SIGNALING 63
Alessandro Fantechi, Wan Fokkink, and Angelo Morzenti

4.1 Introduction 63

4.2 CENELEC Guidelines 65

4.3 Software Procurement in Railway Signaling 66

4.4 A Success Story: The B Method 70

4.5 Classes of Railway Signaling Equipment 71

4.6 Conclusions 80

5 SYMBOLIC MODEL CHECKING FOR AVIONICS 85
Radu I. Siminiceanu and Gianfranco Ciardo

5.1 Introduction 85

5.2 Application: The Runway Safety Monitor 87

5.3 A Discrete Model of RSM 95

5.4 Discussion 107

PART IV TELECOMMUNICATIONS 113

6 APPLYING FORMAL METHODS TO TELECOMMUNICATION SERVICES WITH ACTIVE NETWORKS 115
María del Mar Gallardo, Jesús Martínez, and Pedro Merino

6.1 Overview 115

6.2 Active Networks 116

6.3 The Capsule Approach 117

6.4 Previous Approaches on Analyzing Active Networks 118

6.5 Model Checking Active Networks with SPIN 122

6.6 Conclusions 129

7 PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS OF PROBABILISTIC MODEL CHECKING TO COMMUNICATION PROTOCOLS 133
Marie Dufl ot, Marta Kwiatkowska, Gethin Norman, David Parker, Sylvain Peyronnet, Claudine Picaronny, and Jeremy Sproston

7.1 Introduction 133

7.2 PTAs 134

7.3 Probabilistic Model Checking 136

7.4 Case Study: CSMA/CD 139

7.5 Discussion and Conclusion 146

PART V INTERNET AND ONLINE SERVICES 151

8 DESIGN FOR VERIFIABILITY: THE OCS CASE STUDY 153
Johannes Neubauer, Tiziana Margaria, and Bernhard Steffen

8.1 Introduction 153

8.2 The User Model 155

8.3 The Models and the Framework 158

8.4 Model Checking 159

8.5 Validating Emerging Global Behavior via Automata Learning 161

8.6 Related Work 170

8.7 Conclusion and Perspectives 173

9 AN APPLICATION OF STOCHASTIC MODEL CHECKING IN THE INDUSTRY: USER-CENTERED MODELING AND ANALYSIS OF COLLABORATION IN THINKTEAM 179
Maurice H. ter Beek, Stefania Gnesi, Diego Latella, Mieke Massink, Maurizio Sebastianis, and Gianluca Trentanni

9.1 Introduction 179

9.2 thinkteam 182

9.3 Analysis of the thinkteam Log File 184

9.4 thinkteam with Replicated Vaults 189

9.5 Lessons Learned 201

9.6 Conclusions 201

PART VI RUNTIME: TESTING AND MODEL LEARNING 205

10 THE TESTING AND TEST CONTROL NOTATION TTCN-3 AND ITS USE 207
Ina Schieferdecker and Alain-Georges Vouffo-Feudjio

10.1 Introduction 207

10.2 The Concepts of TTCN-3 210

10.3 An Introductory Example 216

10.4 TTCN-3 Semantics and Its Application 219

10.5 A Distributed Test Platform for the TTCN-3 220

10.6 Case Study I: Testing of Open Service Architecture (OSA)/Parlay Services 223

10.7 Case Study II: Testing of IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) Equipment 225

10.8 Conclusion 230

11 PRACTICAL ASPECTS OF ACTIVE AUTOMATA LEARNING 235
Falk Howar, Maik Merten, Bernhard Steffen, and Tiziana Margaria

11.1 Introduction 235

11.2 Regular Extrapolation 239

11.3 Challenges in Regular Extrapolation 244

11.4 Interacting with Real Systems 247

11.5 Membership Queries 250

11.6 Reset 253

11.7 Parameters and Value Domains 256

11.8 The NGLL 260

11.9 Conclusion and Perspectives 263

References 264

INDEX 269

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STEFANIA GNESI is Director of Research and head of the Formal Methods and Tools Laboratory at ISTI-CNR (Istituto di Scienza e Tecnologie dell'Informazione-Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche) in Pisa, Italy. She was previously a lecturer in methods and tools for the specification and analysis of software systems at the University of Florence.

TIZIANA MARGARIA is Full Professor in the Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences of the University of Potsdam, where she holds the Chair of Service and Software Engineering at the Institute of Informatics. She has held positions at universities in Göttingen, Dortmund, and Passau, Germany, as well as in Sweden and Italy.

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