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Broadband Wireless Multimedia Networks

ISBN: 978-0-470-92354-2
376 pages
December 2012
Broadband Wireless Multimedia Networks (0470923547) cover image

Provides a clear, coherent review of all major wireless broadband standards with an emphasis on managing the explosive growth in mobile video

802.11ac/ad, 802.16m, 802.22, and LTE-Advanced are the emerging broadband wireless standards that offer many powerful wireless features. This book gives an accessible overview of the various standards and practical information on 802.11 link adaptation, 4G smartphone antenna design, wireless video streaming, and smart grids.

Broadband Wireless Multimedia Networks distills the many complex wireless features in a clean and concise manner so that the reader can understand the key principles. Topics covered include adaptive modulation and coding, orthogonal frequency-division multiple access, single-carrier frequency-division multiple access, multiple antenna systems, medium access control time and frequency-division duplex, transmission, and the frame formats. With wireless operators now carrying a much greater amount of video traffic than data and voice traffic, the book also covers adaptive bit rate streaming and bandwidth management for 3D and HD video delivery to multi-screen personal devices.

Featured chapters in the book are:

  • Overview of Broadband Wireless Networks
  • IEEE 802.11 Standard
  • IEEE 802.16 Standard
  • Long-Term Evolution
  • ATSC Digital TV and IEEE 802.22 Standards
  • Mesh, Relay, and Interworking Networks
  • Wireless Video Streaming
  • Green Communications in Wireless Home Area Networks

Including over 180 chapter-end exercises and 200 illustrative figures; available slides and solutions manual for instructors; and accessible recorded tutorials, Broadband Wireless Multimedia Networks is ideal for industry professionals and practitioners, graduate students, and researchers.

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PREFACE xiii

CHAPTER 1 OVERVIEW OF BROADBAND WIRELESS NETWORKS 1

1.1 Introduction 2

1.2 Radio Spectrum 4

1.2.1 Unlicensed Frequency Bands 4

1.2.2 The 2.4 GHz Unlicensed Band 5

1.2.3 The 5 GHz Unlicensed Band 6

1.2.4 The 60 GHz Unlicensed Band 8

1.2.5 Licensed Frequency Bands 8

1.3 Signal Coverage 10

1.3.1 Propagation Mechanisms 11

1.3.2 Multipath 11

1.3.3 Delay Spread and Time Dispersion 13

1.3.4 Coherence Bandwidth 14

1.3.5 Doppler Spread 15

1.3.6 Shadow Fading 15

1.3.7 Radio Propagation Modeling 16

1.3.8 Channel Characteristics 18

1.3.9 Gaussian Channel 18

1.3.10 Rayleigh Channel 18

1.3.11 Rician Channel 19

1.4 Modulation 20

1.4.1 Linear versus Constant Envelope 20

1.4.2 Coherent versus Noncoherent Detection 21

1.4.3 Bit Error Performance 22

1.5 Multipath Mitigation Methods 22

1.5.1 Equalization 22

1.5.2 Multicarrier Transmission 24

1.5.3 Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing 25

1.5.4 Wideband Systems 28

1.5.5 Error Control 31

1.6 Multiple Antenna Systems 32

1.6.1 Receive Diversity versus Transmit Diversity 33

1.6.2 Switched Antenna Receive Diversity 33

1.6.3 Multiple Input Multiple Output Systems 34

1.6.4 Spatial Multiplexing 36

1.6.5 Space–Time Coding 38

1.6.6 Alamouti Space–Time Coding 38

1.6.7 Beamforming MIMO Antenna Arrays 40

1.6.8 Downlink MIMO Architectures 41

1.6.9 Open-Loop and Closed-Loop MIMO 42

1.6.10 Single-User and Multiuser MIMO 43

1.7 Interference 45

1.7.1 Spatial Frequency Reuse 45

1.7.2 Cochannel Interference 47

1.7.3 Multiuser Interference 48

1.8 Mobility and Handoff 49

1.8.1 Intercell versus Intracell Handoff 49

1.8.2 Mobile-Initiated versus Network-Initiated Handoff 49

1.8.3 Forward versus Backward Handoff 50

1.9 Channel Assignment Strategies 50

1.9.1 Medium Access Control Protocols 51

1.9.2 Signal Duplexing Techniques 52

1.9.3 Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access 54

1.10 Performance Evaluation of Wireless Networks 56

1.10.1 Impact of Link Adaptation 58

1.10.2 Impact of Higher Layers 58

1.10.3 Impact of Number of Antennas 60

1.10.4 Impact of Centralized Control 61

1.11 Outdoor Deployment Considerations 61

1.11.1 Fixed Access Path Loss Model 62

1.11.2 Mobile Access Path Loss Models 63

1.11.3 Single Carrier and Multicarrier OFDM Comparison 64

1.11.4 Impact of Modulation and Operating Frequency 64

References 65

Homework Problems 66

CHAPTER 2 IEEE 802.11 STANDARD 80

2.1 802.11 Deployments and Applications 80

2.2 802.11 Today 82

2.3 IEEE 802.11 Standard 83

2.4 IEEE 802.11 Network Architecture 86

2.4.1 Joining a BSS 88

2.4.2 Association Procedures 88

2.4.3 Disassociation and Reassociation 88

2.5 IEEE 802.11 Basic Reference Model 89

2.5.1 OFDM PHY 90

2.5.2 OFDM PLCP Frame Format 92

2.5.3 Medium Access Control 92

2.5.4 Interframe Space Definitions 93

2.5.5 Distributed Coordination Function 95

2.5.6 Virtual Sensing 97

2.5.7 Point Coordination Function 101

2.5.8 Hybrid Coordination Function 102

2.5.9 Synchronization 103

2.5.10 Transmit Opportunity Scheduling 103

2.5.11 Traffic Specification Construction 104

2.5.12 Radio Resource Measurement 106

2.5.13 Station Power Management 107

2.6 IEEE 802.11 Security 108

2.6.1 Wired Equivalent Privacy 109

2.6.2 Robust Security Network Association 111

2.6.3 Mutual Authentication and Key Management 112

2.6.4 Temporal Key Integrity Protocol 114

2.6.5 Counter-Mode Cipher Block Chaining Message Authentication Code Protocol 114

2.6.6 Protection of Management Frames 115

2.7 IEEE 802.11n Amendment 115

2.7.1 Data Rates and Dual Band Operation 116

2.7.2 Error Control 117

2.7.3 High-Throughput Station 117

2.7.4 Mixed Mode Preamble 120

2.7.5 Greenfi eld Preamble 120

2.7.6 Transceiver Design 121

2.7.7 Antenna Selection 122

2.7.8 Subcarrier Mapping 122

2.7.9 Space–Time Block Coding 122

2.7.10 Antenna Beamforming 123

2.7.11 MIMO Control Field 124

2.7.12 HT Capabilities Element 124

2.7.13 MAC Enhancements 125

2.7.14 MPDU Header 125

2.7.15 Frame Types and MAC Addresses 126

2.7.16 Block Acknowledgment 128

2.7.17 Virtual Sensing 130

2.7.18 Use of 40 MHz Channels 131

2.8 New IEEE 802.11 Multigigabit Task Groups 131

2.9 IEEE 802.11ac Amendment 132

2.9.1 Multiuser MIMO 132

2.9.2 Use of 256-QAM 133

2.9.3 Available Bandwidth 134

2.9.4 Modulation and Coding Schemes 134

2.9.5 Interoperability 135

2.10 IEEE 802.11ad Amendment 135

2.10.1 PHY Specifications 140

2.10.2 MAC Specifications 141

2.10.3 Beamforming Protocol 143

2.10.4 60 GHz Implementation 143

References 145

Homework Problems 145

CHAPTER 3 IEEE 802.16 STANDARD 162

3.1 Overview of IEEE 802.16 162

3.2 Basic IEEE 802.16 Operation 164

3.2.1 Reference Model 164

3.2.2 Frequency Bands 167

3.3 IEEE 802.16-2004 Standard 167

3.3.1 Frame Format 168

3.3.2 Multiple Antenna Transmission 170

3.3.3 Adaptive Antenna System 171

3.4 IEEE 802.16e Amendment 172

3.4.1 Subcarrier Allocation 172

3.4.2 Control Mechanisms 173

3.4.3 Closed-Loop Power Control 173

3.4.4 OFDM/OFDMA Implementation 174

3.4.5 Transmit Diversity 174

3.5 IEEE 802.16 Medium Access Control 175

3.5.1 Duplexing 175

3.5.2 Uplink Transmission 175

3.5.3 Downlink Transmission 176

3.5.4 Polling Mechanisms 176

3.5.5 Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request 176

3.5.6 Bandwidth Allocation 177

3.5.7 Service Flows 177

3.5.8 Unsolicited Grant Service 178

3.5.9 Real-Time Polling Service 178

3.5.10 Non–Real-Time Polling Service 178

3.5.11 Extended Real-Time Variable Rate Service 179

3.5.12 Multicast Support 179

3.5.13 Mobility Support 179

3.5.14 Power Conservation 180

3.6 IEEE 802.16m Amendment 180

3.6.1 UL/DL Adaptive Modulation and Coding Schemes 181

3.6.2 DL MIMO Enhancement 182

3.6.3 UL MIMO Enhancement 183

3.6.4 Frame Format 183

3.6.5 Advanced Preambles 184

3.6.6 Resource Blocks 184

3.6.7 Pilot Subcarriers 184

3.6.8 MAC Layer 185

3.6.9 Enhanced Services 186

3.6.10 Summary of 802.16m Features and Performance 186

3.7 WiMAX Forum 187

3.8 Wireless Access Using WiMAX 188

3.8.1 WiMAX Deployment 188

3.8.2 WiMAX/Wi-Fi Router 190

References 190

Homework Problems 190

CHAPTER 4 LONG TERM EVOLUTION 193

4.1 High Speed Packet Access 193

4.2 Long Term Evolution 194

4.2.1 Evolved Packet Core 195

4.2.2 Frequency Bands 197

4.2.3 Physical Layer 197

4.2.4 UL Subcarrier Allocation 199

4.2.5 MIMO Modes 199

4.2.6 Frame Format 200

4.2.7 Physical Resource Blocks 201

4.2.8 Packetization Framework 202

4.2.9 Channel Functions and Mapping 204

4.2.10 Power Saving Modes 209

4.2.11 Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Service 209

4.3 LTE-Advanced 210

4.3.1 Carrier Aggregation 210

4.3.2 HetNet Topology 211

4.3.3 MIMO Modes 213

4.3.4 Coordinated Multipoint Transmission/Reception 213

4.4 Femtocells 213

4.4.1 Deployment 214

4.4.2 Interference Management 214

4.4.3 Traffi c Offl oad Using Femto HNBs 214

4.5 Antenna Design Challenges for 4G Smartphones 215

4.5.1 Physical Considerations 215

4.5.1.1 Antenna Size 215

4.5.1.2 Mutual Coupling between Multiple Antennas 216

4.5.1.3 Correlation Coeffi cient 217

4.5.1.4 Device Usage Models 221

4.5.2 Current Handset Antenna Configurations and Challenges 222

4.5.3 Antenna Implementation 223

4.5.4 Conclusion 225

References 225

Homework Problems 226

CHAPTER 5 ATSC DIGITAL TV AND IEEE 802.22 STANDARDS 230

5.1 Digital TV Frequency Channels 230

5.2 Digital TV Standards 231

5.2.1 Overview of Advanced Television Systems Committee 232

5.2.2 ATSC DTV Standard 232

5.2.3 Digital Video Broadcast-Terrestrial 2 232

5.3 Mobile TV 233

5.3.1 Mobile ATSC Standard 233

5.3.2 Digital Video Broadcast-Handheld 235

5.3.3 Digital Multimedia Broadcasting 235

5.3.4 Comparison of TV Standards 236

5.4 The IEEE 802.22 Standard 236

5.4.1 Physical Layer Overview 238

5.4.2 Adaptive Modulation and Coding 238

5.4.3 Preambles 239

5.4.4 Bandwidth Resource Allocation 240

5.4.5 Spectral Awareness 240

5.4.6 Spectrum Sensing Function 240

5.4.7 Medium Access Control Overview 241

5.4.8 MAC Frame Format 242

5.4.9 Coexistence Beacon Protocol 242

5.4.10 Security 244

5.4.11 IEEE 802.22.1 244

5.5 Whitespace Alliance 245

References 245

Homework Problems 246

CHAPTER 6 MESH, RELAY, AND INTERWORKING NETWORKS 249

6.1 Introduction 249

6.1.1 Mesh Radio Transceivers and Channels 250

6.1.2 Advantages of Mesh Networks 253

6.1.3 Packet Routing 253

6.1.4 Public Mesh Networks 254

6.2 802.11 Mesh Networks 254

6.2.1 802.11s Amendment 254

6.2.2 Mesh Discovery 255

6.3 Hybrid Wireless Mesh Protocol 257

6.3.1 Frame Forwarding Function 258

6.3.2 Mesh Deterministic Access 259

6.3.3 Mesh Link Security 260

6.3.4 Secure Peer Link Establishment 261

6.3.5 Airtime Metric 261

6.3.6 Mesh Power Management 262

6.3.7 Layer 2 Congestion Control 262

6.3.8 Mesh Coordination Function 263

6.3.9 Mesh Channel Switching 263

6.4 802.16 Relay Networks 264

6.4.1 PHY and MAC Layer Extensions 264

6.4.2 Scheduling Modes 264

6.4.3 Relay Modes 265

6.4.4 Cooperative Relays 265

6.5 802.11 Interworking with External Networks 266

References 267

Homework Problems 268

CHAPTER 7 WIRELESS VIDEO STREAMING 277

7.1 High-Def nition and 3D Videos 277

7.2 Video Compression 278

7.2.1 MPEG Standard 279

7.2.2 H.264/MPEG-4 AVC Standard 280

7.2.3 Constant Bit Rate and Variable Bit Rate Videos 280

7.3 Video Streaming Interfaces and Standards 281

7.3.1 Robust Multicast 281

7.3.2 Prioritization 281

7.3.3 Overlapping BSS Management 282

7.3.4 Interworking with 802.1AVB 282

7.3.5 Higher Layer Factors 282

7.3.6 Digital Living Network Alliance 283

7.4 Adaptive Video Streaming 283

7.4.1 Video Quality and Chunk Effi ciency 285

7.4.2 Video Quality for Different VBR Chunk Durations 287

7.4.3 Chunk Rate versus Chunk Duration 288

7.4.4 Chunk Efficiency versus Chunk Duration 290

7.4.5 Instantaneous and Average Rates for Different Chunk Durations 291

7.4.6 Wireless Live Streaming 291

7.4.7 Wireless Smooth Streaming 294

7.4.8 802.16 Smooth Streaming 294

7.4.9 802.11 Smooth Streaming 296

7.5 3D Video Transmission 298

7.5.1 View Multiplexing 298

7.5.2 H.264 Multiview Coding Extension 300

7.5.3 MVC Inter-View Prediction 300

7.5.4 MVC Inter-View Reordering 302

7.5.5 MVC Profiles 302

7.5.6 Comparing MVC with H.264 Video Coding 302

7.5.7 Correlation between Left and Right Views in S3D Videos 303

7.5.8 View Expansion via Pixel Interpolation 305

7.5.9 Pixel Interpolation Results 306

7.5.10 Inter-View versus Intraview Pixel Concealment 307

7.5.11 Interframe versus Intraview Pixel Interpolation 308

7.5.12 Impact of Quantization on Interpolated S3D Videos 308

7.5.13 Anaglyph 3D Generation 310

7.5.14 H.264 Coding Effi ciency for Anaglyph Videos 311

7.5.15 Delta Analysis 311

7.5.16 Disparity Vector Generation 313

7.6 Media-Activated Wireless Communications 315

7.6.1 Leanback TV Navigation Using Hand Gestures 315

7.6.2 Multiuser and Multiscreen Media Sharing Using 802.11 315

References 317

Homework Problems 317

CHAPTER 8 GREEN COMMUNICATIONS IN WIRELESS HOME AREA NETWORKS 327

Contributed By Bob Heile

8.1 ZigBee Overview 327

8.2 Smart Grid Challenges 329

8.3 Home Area Networks 330

8.3.1 Time of Use 332

8.3.2 Electric Vehicles 333

8.4 Future Challenges 334

Homework Problem 334

GLOSSARY 335

INDEX 347

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BENNY BING is a research faculty member at Georgia Institute of Technology. He has published eleven books and over eighty technical papers and had his first book on Wireless LANs adopted by Cisco Systems. Bing has served as an editor for the IEEE Wireless Communications Magazine (2003-2012), as the IEEE Communications Society Distinguished Lecturer, and as a Wi-Fi expert witness. He also led a research team that received the 2010 NAB Technology Innovation award.

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