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Guidelines for Design Solutions for Process Equipment Failures

ISBN: 978-0-470-93527-9
252 pages
September 2010
Guidelines for Design Solutions for Process Equipment Failures (0470935278) cover image
While there is no "perfect" solution or absolute zero risk, engineering design can significantly reduce risk potential in the CPI. In Guidelines for Design Solutions to Process Equipment Failures, industry experts offer their broad experience in identifying numerous solutions to the more common process equipment failures including inherent safer/passive, active, and procedural solutions, in decreasing order of robustness and reliability. The book challenges the engineer to identify opportunities for inherent and passive safety features early, and use a risk-based approach to process safety systems specification. The book is organized into three basic sections: 1) a technique for making risk-based design decisions; 2) potential failure scenarios for 10 major processing equipment categories; and 3) two worked examples showing how the techniques can be applied. The equipment categories covered are: vessels, reactors, mass transfer equipment, fluid transfer equipment, solids-fluid separators, solids handling and processing equipment, and piping and piping components.

Special Details: Hardcover book plus 3.5" diskette for use in any word processing program with design solutions for use in PHAs.

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Foreword.

Preface.

Acknowledgment.

1. Introduction.

1.1 Objectives.

1.2 Scope.

1.3 Background.

1.4 Applicability and Audience.

1.5 Organization of This Book.

1.6 References.

Suggested Additional Reading.

2. Technique for Selecting the Design Bases for Process Safety Systems.

2.1 Risk-Based Design Decisions.

2.2 The Concept of Risk.

2.3 Selection of Design Bases for Safety Systems.

2.3.1 Step 1: Identify Failure Scenarios.

2.3.2 Step 2: Estimate the Consequences.

2.3.3 Step 3: Determine Tolerability of Consequences.

2.3.4 Step 4: Estimate Likelihood and Risk.

2.3.5 Step 5: Determine Tolerability of Risk.

2.3.6 Step 6: Consider Enhanced and/or Alternative Design.

2.3.7 Step 7: Evaluate Enhancements and/or Alternatives.

2.3.8 Step 8: Determine Tolerability of Risk and Cost.

2.3.9 Step 9: Document Results.

2.4 Guidelines for Risk Tolerability.

2.5 Potential Process Safety Systems Design Solutions.

2.5.1 Four Categories of Design Solutions.

2.5.2 Characteristics of Design Solutions Categories.

2.6 Applying the Risk-Based Design Bases Selection Technique.

2.6.1 Locking Open a Valve (a Simple Design Case).

2.6.2 Selecting the Relief System Basis for a Reactor (a Complete Design Case).

2.7 References.

Suggested Additional Reading.

3. Vessels.

3.1 Introduction.

3.2 Past Incidents.

3.2.1 Storage Tank Autopolymerization Incident.

3.2.2 Storage Tank Stratification Incident.

3.2.3 Batch Pharmaceutical Reactor Accident.

3.3 Failure Scenarios and Design Solutions.

3.4 Discussion.

3.4.1 Use of Potential Design Solutions Table.

3.4.2 Special Considerations.

3.5 References.

Suggested Additional Reading.

Table 3. Failure Scenarios for Vessels.

4. Reactors.

4.1 Introduction.

4.2 Past Incidents.

4.2.1 Seveso Runaway Reaction.

4.2.2 3,3-Dichloroaniline Autoclave Incident.

4.2.3 Continuous Sulfonation Reaction Explosion.

4.3 Failure Scenarios and Design Solutions.

4.4 Discussion.

4.4.1 Use of Potential Design Solutions Table.

4.4.2 General Discussion.

4.4.3 Special Considerations.

4.5 References.

Suggested Additional Reading.

Table 4. Failure Scenarios for Reactors.

5. Mass Transfer Equipment.

5.1 Introduction.

5.2 Past Incidents.

5.2.1 Distillation Column Critical Concentration.

5.2.2 Ethylene Purifier Vessel Rupture.

5.2.3 Ignition of Pyrophoric Materials in Gasoline Fractionator.

5.3 Failure Scenarios and Design Solutions.

5.4 Discussion.

5.4.1 Use of Potential Design Solutions Table.

5.4.2 Special Considerations.

5.5 References.

Suggested Additional Reading.

Table 5. Failure Scenarios for Mass Transfer Equipment.

6. Heat Transfer Equipment.

6.1 Introduction.

6.2 Past Incidents.

6.2.1 Ethylene Oxide Redistillation Column Explosion.

6.2.2 Brittle Fracture of Heat Exchanger.

6.2.3 Cold Box Explosion.

6.3 Failure Scenarios and Design Solutions.

6.4 Discussion.

6.4.1 Use of Potential Design Solutions Table.

6.4.2 Special Considerations.

6.5 References.

Suggested Additional Reading.

Table 6. Failure Scenarios for Heat Transfer Equipment.

7. Dryers.

7.1 Introduction.

7.2 Past Incidents.

7.2.1 Drying a Compound Fertilizers.

7.2.2 Fires In Cellulose Acetate Dryer.

7.2.3 Pharmaceutical Powder Dryer Fire and Explosion.

7.3 Failure Scenarios and Design Solutions.

7.4 Discussion.

7.4.1 Use of Potential Design Solutions Table.

7.4.2 Special Considerations.

7.5 References.

Suggested Additional Reading.

Table 7 Failure Scenarios for Dryers.

8. Fluid Transfer Equipment.

8.1 Introduction.

8.2 Past Incidents.

8.2.1 Reciprocating Pump Leak.

8.2.2 Pump Leak Fire.

8.2.3 Compressor Fire and Explosion.

8.2.4 Start-up of Parallel Centrifugal Pumps.

8.3 Failure Scenarios and Design Solutions.

8.4 Discussion.

8.4.1 Use of Potential Design Solutions Table.

8.4.2 Special Considerations.

8.5 References.

Suggested Additional Reading.

Table 8. Failure Scenarios for Fluid Transfer Equipment.

9. Solid-Fluid Separators.

9.1 Introduction.

9.2 Past Incidents.

9.2.1 Batch Centrifuge Explosion.

9.2.2 Filter Explosion.

9.2.3 Dust Collector Explosion.

9.3 Failure Scenarios and Design Solutions.

9.4 Discussion.

9.4.1 Use of Potential Design Solutions Table.

9.4.2 Special Considerations.

9.5 References.

Suggested Additional reading.

Table 9. Failure Scenarios for Solid-Fluid Separators.

10. Solids Handling and Processing Equipment.

10.1 Introduction.

10.2 Past Incidents.

10.2.1 Silicon Grinders Fire and Explosion.

10.2.2 Blowing Agent Blender Operation Explosion Incident.

10.2.3 Screw Conveyor Explosion.

10.2.4 Bucket Elevator Explosion.

10.3 Failure Scenarios and Design Solutions.

10.4 Discussion.

10.4.1 Use of Potential Design Solution Table.

10.4.2 General Discussion.

10.4.3 Special Considerations.

10.5 References.

Suggested Additional Reading.

Table 10. Failure Scenarios for Solids Handling and Processing Equipment.

11. Fired Equipment.

11.1 Introduction.

11.2 Past Incidents.

11.2.1 Light-Off Error.

11.2.2 Ethylene Cracking Furnace Overfiring.

11.2.3 Furnace Tube Failure.

11.3 Failure Scenarios and Design Solutions.

11.4 Discussion.

11.4.1 Use of Potential Design Solutions Table.

11.4.2 Special Considerations.

11.5 References.

Suggested Additional Reading.

Table 11. Failure Scenarios for Fired Equipment.

12. Piping and Piping Components.

12.1 Introduction.

12.2 Past Incidents.

12.2.1 Fixborough Expansion Joint Failure.

12.2.2 Chemical Storage Terminal Fire.

12.2.3 Line Pluggage.

12.2.4 External Corrosion.

12.3 Failure Scenarios and Design Solutions.

12.4 Discussion.

12.4.1 Use of Potential Design Solutions Table.

12.4.2 Special Considerations.

12.5 References.

Suggested Additional Reading.

Table 12. Failure Scenario for Piping and Piping Components.

Appendix A. Example Problem: Batch Chemical Reactor.

Appendix B. Example Problem: Distillation System.

Glossary.

Acronyms and Abbreviations.

Index.

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