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Social Marketing and Social Change: Strategies and Tools For Improving Health, Well-Being, and the Environment

ISBN: 978-0-470-93684-9
592 pages
February 2013, ©2013, Jossey-Bass
Social Marketing and Social Change: Strategies and Tools For Improving Health, Well-Being, and the Environment (0470936843) cover image

How can we facilitate more effective, efficient, equitable and sustainable solutions to the problems that confound our communities and world? Social marketing guru R. Craig LeFebvre weaves together multi-level theories of change, research and case studies to explain and illustrate the development of social marketing to address some of society’s most vexing problems. The result is a people-centered approach that relies on insight and empathy as much as on data for the inspiration, design and management of programs that strive for changes for good. This text is ideal for students and professionals in health, nonprofit, business, social services, and other areas.

“This is it -- the comprehensive, brainy road map for tackling wicked social problems. It’s all right here: how to create and innovate, build and implement, manage and measure, scale up and sustain programs that go well beyond influencing individual behaviors, all the way to broad social change in a world that needs the help.”—Bill Novelli, Professor, McDonough School of Business, Georgetown University, former CEO, AARP and founder, Porter Novelli and the Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids

“I’m unaware of a more substantive treatise on social marketing and social change. Theoretically based; pedagogically focused; transdisciplinary; innovative; and action oriented: this book is right for our time, our purpose, and our future thinking and action.”—Robert Gold, MS, PhD, Professor of Public Health and Former Dean of the School of Public Health at the University of Maryland, College Park

“This book -- like its author -- is innovative and forward-looking, yet also well-grounded in the full range of important social marketing fundamentals.”—Edward Maibach, MPH, PhD, University Professor and Director, Center for Climate Change Communication, George Mason University

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Figures and Tables xi

Acknowledgments xiii

Preface xix

The Author xxv

Chapter 1 The History and Domains of Social Marketing 1

Learning Objectives 2

The Change We Need: New Ways of Thinking About Social Issues 2

Wicked Problems and Their Solution 5

Why Use Social Marketing? 9

What Is Social Marketing? 13

A Historical Perspective 15

Summary 30

Key Terms 31

Discussion Questions 31

Chapter 2 Principles of Social Marketing 33

Learning Objectives 34

The Characteristics of Social Marketing 34

How Can We Use Social Marketing? 38

Strategic Social Marketing 41

Ethics for Social Marketing 70

Summary 72

Key Terms 73

Discussion Questions 74

Chapter 3 Determinants, Context, and Consequences for Individual and Social Change 75

Learning Objectives 76

Why Use Theory? 77

From Individual to System Levels of Analysis: Changing Scales of Reality 91

Mindspace 97

Shifting from Individuals to Markets 115

Summary 119

Key Terms 120

Discussion Questions 121

Chapter 4 Segmentation and Competition 123

Learning Objectives 124

Segmentation 124

Competition 143

Summary 153

Key Terms 154

Discussion Questions 154

Chapter 5 Moving from Descriptions of People to Understanding, Empathy, and Insight 157

Learning Objectives 158

The Depth Deficit 160

Priority Group Personas or Archetypes 163

The Creative Brief 169

The Vital Function of the Planner 175

Insight 177

Designing Research for Empathy, Insight, and Inspiration 184

Summary 202

Key Terms 203

Discussion Questions 203

Chapter 6 The Consumer Experience as the Marketer’s Touchpoint 205

Learning Objectives 206

Going Out of Our Heads 207

Exploratory Formative Research: Online Health Information Behaviors 215

A Continuum of Touchpoints 244

Summary 247

Key Terms 247

Discussion Questions 248

Chapter 7 Strategic Positioning and Brands 249

Learning Objectives 250

Positioning 250

Positioning Concurrency as an HIV Risk Behavior 252

Brands 254

Summary 265

Key Terms 266

Discussion Questions 266

Chapter 8 Embedding Marketing in Programs and Organizations: Developing Strategy 269

Learning Objectives 270

Creating a Marketing Strategy 272

Applying Social Marketing Anywhere, Anytime 288

Ways to Improve Social Marketing Programs 305

Summary 307

Key Terms 308

Discussion Questions 308

Chapter 9 Using Marketing Mix Components for Program Development 309

Learning Objectives 310

Products 311

Services 314

Places 321

Prices 325

Promotion 336

Pulling It All Together 345

Summary 346

Key Terms 347

Discussion Questions 348

Chapter 10 Monitoring and Evaluation 349

Learning Objectives 350

Program Monitoring 351

Evaluation 361

Summary 382

Key Terms 383

Discussion Questions 384

Chapter 11 Personal and Community Engagement in Change 385

Learning Objectives 386

Community-Based Approaches to Social Marketing 386

Shifting from Engagement to Activation 406

Can Social Marketing Revitalize Communities? 408

Summary 410

Key Terms 410

Discussion Questions 411

Chapter 12 Social Technologies for Social Marketing and Social Change 413

Learning Objectives 414

Developing Strategies for Social Media 414

Mobile Technologies 431

Pulling It Together: The Media Multiplexity Idea 440

Implications of Social and Mobile Technologies for Marketing Social Change 441

Summary 444

Key Terms 444

Discussion Questions 445

Chapter 13 Social Marketing for Dissemination and Program Sustainability 447

Learning Objectives 448

Dissemination of Program and Service Innovations 448

Marketing to Achieve Sustainable Programs 460

Summary 472

Key Terms 473

Discussion Questions 474

Chapter 14 Management and Innovation 475

Learning Objectives 476

Creating a Marketing Culture 476

Innovations 491

Looking to the Future of Social Marketing 497

Summary 501

Key Terms 503

Discussion Questions 503

References 505

Index 541

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R. Craig Lefebvre, PhD is a thought leader and practice advocate for applying marketing to social issues. He is chief maven at socialShift—a social design, marketing, and media consultancy, lead change designer at RTI International, and research professor in the University of South Florida College of Public Health.

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