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Guidelines for Evaluating Process Plant Buildings for External Explosions and Fires

ISBN: 978-0-470-93792-1
189 pages
September 2010
Guidelines for Evaluating Process Plant Buildings for External Explosions and Fires (0470937920) cover image
Dedicated to the Memory and Spirit of Donald F. Othmer Though there are many industry practices for building design and siting, they do not always apply to all sectors of the industry, or ensure consistent levels of safety. This practical book, written by the same author as API Recommended Practice 752, provides the details to implement the recommended practice, "Management of Hazards Associated with Location of Process Plant Buildings." Its contents include safety guidelines on fire and explosion risks to process plant buildings as a result of events external to the building, which can apply across the spectrum of industries, and to conditions at any site. The book also offers guidance on assessing, screening, and managing risks associated with building design and siting. Two appendices give extensive coverage of explosion and fire phenomena, and effects and principles of blast-resistant design.
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Preface.

Acknowledgments.

Chapter 1. Introduction.

1.1. Objective and Scope.

1.2. Background.

1.3. Evolution of Design and Siting Practices for Buildings in Process Plants.

1.3.1. Brief History of Building Designs.

1.3.2. Standards for Building and Equipment Siting and Separation for Site-Specific Evaluation.

Chapter 2. Management Overview.

2.1. Explosion and Fire Phenomena.

2.2. Statement of the Problem.

2.3. Analysis Approach.

Chapter 3. Initial Screening and Consequences Screening.

3.1. Process and Plant Documentation.

3.2. Initial Screening.

3.2.1. Initial Screening for Events of Concern Through Identification of Materials and Conditions Present at the Specific Site.

3.2.2. Conduct Initial Screening through Applying Occupancy or Functional Criteria of Concern.

3.3. Consequence Screening.

3.3.1. Consequence Screening by Comparison to Design and Spacing Criteria.

3.3.2. Consequence Screening by Modeling Site-Specific Conditions.

Chapter 4. Risk Screening.

4.1. Derivation and Presentation of Risk.

4.2. Interpretation and Use of Risk Measures.

4.2.1. Use of Individual risk Measures.

4.2.2. Use of Aggregate risk Measures.

4.3. Overview of Risk-Screening Approach.

4.3.1. Process Plant Buildings Explosion Exposure.

4.3.2. Building Types.

4.3.3. Estimate of Building Damage and Probability of Serous or Fatal Injury.

4.3.4. Approximate Event Frequency Determination.

4.3.5. Risk Estimates.

Chapter 5. Risk Assessment.

5.1. Hazard Identification and Evaluation.

5.2. Techniques Used to Evaluate Hazards to Buildings in Process Plants.

5.3. Key Factors to Consider in Process Plant Building Risk Assessments.

5.3.1. Selecting Scenarios for Study.

5.3.2. Explosion Consequence Evaluation.

5.3.3. Fire Consequence Evaluation.

5.3.4. Frequency Evaluation.

5.4. Qualitative Risk Assessment.

5.4.1. Qualitative Consequence Evaluation.

5.4.2. Qualitative Frequency Evaluation.

5.4.3. Qualitative Risk Evaluation.

5.5. Quantitative Risk Analysis.

5.5.1. Quantitative Consequence Evaluation.

5.5.2. Quantitative Frequency Evaluation.

5.5.3. Quantitative Risk Determination.

Chapter 6. Risk Management.

6.1. Risk Management Overview.

6.1.1. Managing Risk to Process Plant Buildings.

6.1.2. Deciding When to use QRA.

6.2. Reducing Risk to Buildings in Process Plants.

6.2.1. Functional Risk-Reduction Measures.

6.2.2. Preventive Risk-Reduction Measures.

6.2.3. Mitigative Risk-Reduction Measures.

6.2.4. Criteria for Mitigating Risk from Blast Effects.

6.2.5. Upgrading Buildings to Increase Blast Resistance.

6.3. Choosing among Risk-Reduction Alternatives.

Chapter 7. Future Developments.

7.1. Definitions and Use of Building Occupancy Criteria.

7.2. Determination of Occupant Vulnerabilities as a Function of Building Damage.

7.3. Development of Generic Frequency Data to Improve Risk-Screening Tools.

7.4. Development of Company-Specific Risk Tolerance Criteria.

7.5. Improved Options for Risk Reduction.

Appendix A. Explosion and Fire Phenomena and effects.

A.1. Explosion and Fire Phenomena.

A.1.1. Explosions.

A.1.2. Fires.

A.2. Evaluating Characteristics of Explosions and Fires.

A2.1. Explosions.

A.2.2. Jet Fires: Direct Contact and Conduction.

A.3. Effects of Explosion on Buildings.

Appendix B. Principles of Blast-Resistant Design.

B.1. Evaluation of Structural Response to Blast Pressure.

B.1.1. Introduction.

B.1.2. Approximate Analytical Techniques.

B.1.3. Finite Element Approach.

B.2. Assessment of Building Damage and Probability of Serious Injuries/Fatalities.

B.3. Pressure-Impulse Diagrams.

B.4. Evaluation of Structural Response to Fragments and Ground Shock.

B.4.1. Fragments.

B.4.2. Ground Shock.

B.5. Blast-Resistant Design and Construction.

B.5.1. Blast Design Criteria.

B.5.2. Ductile Design Considerations.

B.5.3. Plant Layout and Spacing Considerations.

References.

Glossary.

Index.

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