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Renewable Polymers: Synthesis, Processing, and Technology

Vikas Mittal (Editor)
ISBN: 978-0-470-93877-5
502 pages
October 2011
Renewable Polymers: Synthesis, Processing, and Technology (0470938773) cover image

Presents the synthesis, technology and processing details of a large range of polymers derived from renewable resources

It has been a long-term desire to replace polymers from fossil fuels with the more environmentally friendly polymers generated from renewable resources. Now, with the recent advancements in synthesis technologies and the finding of new functional monomers, research in this field has shown strong potential in generating better property polymers from renewable resources. A text describing these advances in synthesis, processing, and technology of such polymers not only provides the state-of-the-art information to researchers, but also acts to stimulate research in this direction. The contents are based on a wide range of functional monomers and the contributions are written by eminent researchers.

Specifically Renewable Polymers:

  • Demonstrates the design, synthesis, properties and applications of plant oil-based polymers

  • Presents an elaborate review of acid mediated polymerization techniques for the generation of green polymers

  • Details the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) from olive oil based wastewater

  • Describes the use of atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) techniques

  • Reviews the renewable polymers derived from transgenic crop plants

  • Provides an overview of a range of biomass-based polymers

  • Concludes with the recent efforts and approaches exploiting the natural materials in developing drug delivery systems.

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Preface xii

List of Contributors xv

1. Polymers from renewable Resources 1
V. Mittal

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Naturally Renewable Methylene Butyrolactones 4

1.3 Renewable Rosin Acid-Degradable Caprolactone Block Copolymers 6

1.4 Plant Oils as Platform Chemicals for Polymer Synthesis 7

1.5 Biosourced Sterecontrolled Polytriazoles 9

1.6 Polymers from Naturally Occurring Monoterpene 10

1.7 Polymerization of Biosourced 2- (Methacryloyloxy) ethyl Tiglate 11

1.8 Oxypropylation of Repeseed Cake Residue 12

1.9 Copolymerization of Naturally Occurring Limonene 13

1.10 Polymerization of Lactides 14

1.11 Nanocomposites Using Renewable Polymers 19

1.12 Castor Oil Based Thermosets 19

References 22

2. Design, Synthesis, Property, and Application of Plant Oil Polymers 23
Keshar Prassain and Duy H. Hua

2.1 Introduction 24

2.2 Triglyceride Polymers 25

2.3 Summary 65

Reference 65

3. Advances in Acid Mediated Polymerizations 69
Stewart P. Lewis and R. Mathers

3.1 Introduction 70

3.2 Problems Inherent to Cationic Ole. N Polymerization 72

3.3 Progress Toward Cleaner Cationic Polymerization 75

3.4 Environmental Bene. Ts via New Process Conditions 158

3.5 Cationic Polymerization of Monomers Derived from Renewable Resources 161

3.6 Sustainable Synthesis of Monomers for Cationic Polymerization 163

References 164

4. Olive Oil Wastewater as a Renewable Resource for Production of Polyhydroxyalkanoates 175
Francesco Valentino, Marianna Villano, Lorenzo Bertin, Mario Beccari, and Mauro Majone

4.1 Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs): Structure, Properties, and Applications 175

4.2 PHA Production Processes Employing Pure Microbial Cultures 177

4.3 PHA Production Processes Employing Mixed Microbial Cultures 178

4.4 Olive Oil Mill Ef. Uents (OMEs) as a Possible Feedstock for PHA Production 197

4.5 OMEs as Feedstock for PHA Production 206

4.6 Concluding Remarks 211

References 212

5. Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization (ATRP) for Production of Polymers from Renewable Resources 221
Kattimuttathu I. Suresh

5.1 Introduction 221

5.2 Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization (ATRP) 222

5.3 Synthetic Strategies to Develop Functional Material Based on Renewable Resources – Composition, Topologies and Functionalities 227

5.4 Sustainable Sources for Monomers with a Potential for Making Novel Renewable Polymers 231

5.5 Conclusions and Outlook 241

References 242

6. Renewable Polymers in Transgenic Crop Plants 247
Tina Hausmann and Inge Broer

6.1 Natural Plant Polymers 248

6.2 De Novo Synthesis of Polymers in Plants 269

6.3 Conclusion 289

References 291

7. Polyesters, Polycarbonates and Polyamides Based on Renewable Resources 305
Bart A. J. Noordover

7.1 Introduction 306

7.2 Biomass-Based Monomers 307

7.3 Polyesters Based on Renewable Resources 308

7.4 Polycarbonates Based on Renewable Resources 332

7.5 Polyamides Based on Renewable Resources 344

7.6 Conclusions 349

References 350

8. Succinic Acid: Synthesis of Biobased Polymers from Renewable Resources 355
Stephen Kabasci and Inna Bretz

8.1 Introduction 355

8.2 Polymerization 359

8.3 Conclusions 371

References 372

9. 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural Based Polymers 381
Ananda S. Amarasekara

9.1 Introduction 381

9.2 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural 382

9.3 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural Derivatives 393

9.4 Polymers from 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural Derivatives 398

9.5 Conclusion 421

References 422

10. Natural Polymers-A Boon for Drug Delivery
Rajesh. N. Uma, and Valluru Ravi

10.1 Introduction 429

10.2 Acacia 429

10.3 Agar 431

10.4 Alginate 433

10.5 Carrageenan 436

10.6 Cellulose 438

10.7 Chitosan 440

10.8 Dextrin 444

10.9 Dextrin 445

10.10 Gellan Gum 447

10.11 Guar Gum 448

10.12 Inulin 451

10.13 Karaya Gum 454

10.14 Konjac Glucomannan 453

10.15 Locust Bean Gum 454

10.16 Locust Gum 455

10.17 Pectin 455

10.18 Psyllium Husk 457

10.19 Scleroglucan 457

10.20 Starch 460

10.21 Xanthan Gum 462

References 465

Index 473 

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Vikas Mittal is an Assistant Professor at the Chemical Engineering Department of The Petroleum Institute, Abu Dhabi. He obtained his PhD in 2006 in Polymer and Materials Engineering from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich. He then worked as a materials scientist in Active and Intelligent Coatings section of SunChemical in London, UK and as a polymer engineer at BASF Polymer Research in Ludwigshafen, Germany. His research interests include polymer nanocomposites, novel filler surface modifications, thermal stability enhancements, and polymer latexes with functionalized surfaces.

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