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Coffee: Emerging Health Effects and Disease Prevention

Yi-Fang Chu (Editor)
ISBN: 978-0-470-95878-0
352 pages
March 2012, Wiley-Blackwell
Coffee: Emerging Health Effects and Disease Prevention (0470958782) cover image
Coffee: Emerging Health Benefits and Disease Prevention presents a comprehensive overview of the recent scientific advances in the field. The book focuses on the following topics: coffee constituents; pro- and antioxidant properties of coffee constituents; bioavailability of coffee constituents; health benefits and disease prevention effects of coffee; and potential negative impacts on health.

Multiple chapters describe coffee's positive impact on health and various diseases: type 2 diabetes; neurodegenerative diseases (Parkinson's and Alzheimer's); cancer (prostate, bladder, pancreatic, breast, ovarian, colon and colorectal); cardiovascular health; and liver health. Coffee's positive effects on mood, suicide rate and cognitive performance are addressed as are the negative health impacts of coffee on pregnancy, insulin sensitivity, dehydration, gastric irritation, anxiety, and withdrawal syndrome issues.

Written by many of the top researchers in the world, Coffee: Emerging Health Benefits and Disease Prevention is a must-have reference for food professionals in academia, industry, and governmental and regulatory agencies whose work involves coffee.

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Preface xvii

List of Contributors xix

List of Abbreviations xxii

Acknowledgement xxv

1 Introduction 1
Thomas Hatzold

1.1 Coffee—a popular beverage 1

1.2 Coffee from a nutritional perspective 1

1.3 Potential beneficial effects of coffee 2

1.4 Limitations to the beneficial effects 3

1.5 History 5

1.6 Coffee production worldwide 5

1.7 Coffee processing: formation and fate of bioactive compounds 5

1.8 New processes to optimize the health benefits of coffee 10

1.9 Coffee preparation 12

1.10 Coffee beverages and specialties 14

1.11 Coffee consumption 14

1.12 Conclusions 16

2 Coffee Constituents 21
Adriana Farah

2.1 Introduction 21

2.2 Production of coffee and coffee-based beverages 22

2.3 Natural coffee constituents 26

2.4 Incidental coffee constituents 43

2.5 Concluding remarks 50

3 Bioavailability of Coffee Chlorogenic Acids 59
Angelique Stalmach

3.1 Introduction 59

3.2 Chlorogenic acids: contribution of coffee to dietary levels ingested 59

3.4 Conclusions 72

4 Coffee and Alzheimer’s Disease: Animal and Cellular Evidence 77
Marshall G. Miller and Barbara Shukitt-Hale

4.1 Introduction 77

4.2 Alzheimer’s disease 77

4.3 Coffee 81

4.4 Caffeine 82

4.5 Phenolics 86

4.6 Other coffee constituents 89

4.7 Conclusions 91

5 Coffee and Alzheimer’s Disease—Epidemiologic Evidence 97
Joan Lindsay, Pierre-Hugues Carmichael, Edeltraut Kr¨oger, and Danielle Laurin

5.1 Introduction 97

5.2 Review of epidemiologic studies of coffee in relation to Alzheimer's disease, dementia, and selected aspects of cognitive functioning 98

5.3 The strength of the evidence for preventing Alzheimer’s disease 106

6 Coffee and Parkinson's Disease 111
Jing-Wei Lim and Eng-King Tan

6.1 Introduction 111

6.2 Pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease 111

6.3 Gene and environmental/lifestyle factors 112

6.4 Clinical evidence linking coffee consumption and Parkinson's disease 113

6.5 Neuroprotection and active components of coffee 115

6.6 Adenosine receptor antagonism and Parkinson's disease 116

6.7 Caffeine rescue of Parkinson's disease in animal models 116

6.8 Clinical trials of adenosine receptor antagonists in Parkinson's disease 117

6.9 Caffeine-mediated genetic susceptibility of Parkinson's disease 118

6.10 Summary 118

7 Coffee and Liver Health 123
Pablo Muriel and Jonathan Arauz

7.1 The liver 123

7.2 Epidemiologic studies 124

7.3 Coffee, fibrosis, and cirrhosis 124

7.4 Coffee and animal models of hepatic fibrosis 126

7.5 Cytokines and liver fibrosis 127

7.6 Mechanism of coffee’s protective effect 128

7.7 Adenosine A2A receptors and caffeine 132

7.8 Caffeine metabolism and drug interactions 134

7.9 Conclusions 134

8 Coffee and Type 2 Diabetes Risk 141
Nathan V. Matusheski, Siamak Bidel, and Jaakko Tuomilehto

8.1 Introduction 141

8.2 Observational associations between coffee consumption and type 2 diabetes risk 142

8.3 Coffee preparation 154

8.4 Observational associations between coffee consumption and diabetes risk factors 156

8.5 Intervention studies in human subjects 159

8.6 Possible mechanisms of action 166

8.7 Summary and conclusions 170

9 Coffee and Cardiovascular Diseases 181
Siamak Bidel and Jaakko Tuomilehto

9.1 Introduction 181

9.2 Coffee components and CVD 181

9.3 Early, transient, or acute effects of coffee consumption on CVD 183

9.4 Coffee metabolism and CVD: genetic influences 185

9.5 Long-term habitual coffee consumption and CVD 185

9.6 Coffee consumption and heart failure 189

9.7 Coffee consumption and stroke 189

9.8 Summary 190

10 Coffee and Cancers 197
Andre Nkondjock

10.1 Introduction 197

10.2 Breast cancer 198

10.3 Colorectal cancer 198

10.4 Prostate cancer 199

10.5 Bladder cancer 199

10.6 Gastric cancer 200

10.7 Ovarian cancer 201

10.8 Pancreatic cancer 201

10.9 Liver cancer 201

10.10 Head and neck cancers 202

10.11 Endometrial cancer 203

10.12 Kidney cancer 204

10.13 Brain cancer 204

10.14 Cancer survival 204

10.15 Conclusions 205

11 Coffee Consumption and Mortality Risk 211
Kemmyo Sugiyama, Shinichi Kuriyama, and Ichiro Tsuji

11.1 Introduction 211

11.2 Coffee consumption and all-cause mortality 211

11.3 Coffee consumption and CVD mortality 221

11.4 Coffee consumption and cancer mortality 222

11.5 Possible mechanism of CVD mortality reduction by coffee 223

11.6 Conclusions 223

12 Is Coffee the Next Red Wine? Coffee Polyphenol and Cholesterol Efflux 227
Harumi Kondo, Makoto Ayaori, and Katsunori Ikewaki

12.1 High-density lipoprotein and cardiovascular disease 227

12.2 Coffee and cardiovascular disease 227

12.3 Coffee polyphenols 228

12.4 Coffee polyphenols and cholesterol efflux 229

13 Additional Positive Impacts on Health 233
Yi-Fang Chu and Yumin Chen

13.1 Coffee intake and reduced risk of suicide 233

13.2 Enhanced cognitive performance and mood 235

13.3 Coffee bioactive compounds 236

14 Epidemiological Evidence for Maternal Prenatal Coffee and Caffeine Consumption and Miscarriage Risk 243
Ronna L. Chan

14.1 Introduction 243

14.2 Coffee consumption during pregnancy: a three-decade-old concern 243

14.3 Evidence from the current literature 244

14.4 Methodological concerns and limitations for studies on coffee or caffeine exposure and miscarriage 247

14.5 Risk for recurrent miscarriage 253

14.6 Conclusion, public health implications, and recommendations for future studies 254

15 Acrylamide in Coffee 259
Richard H. Stadler and Viviane Theurillat

15.1 Introduction 259

15.2 Methods of analysis 260

15.3 Occurrence in coffee and exposure estimates 260

15.4 Mechanisms of formation 262

15.5 Mitigation options 264

15.6 Risk assessment and risk management 268

15.7 Conclusions 270

16 Impact of Coffee on Gastric Acid Secretion 275
Malte J. Rubach and Veronika Somoza

16.1 Introduction 275

16.2 Regulation of gastric acid secretion 276

16.3 Effects of coffee on gastric secretion 279

16.4 Optimization of coffee bean processing to reduce the gastric acid stimulatory potential of coffee 285

16.5 Dietary impact on the gastric acid stimulatory potential of coffee 286

16.6 Conclusions 287

17 Potential Mental Risks 293
Emma Childs and Harriet de Wit

17.1 Epidemiology of coffee and other forms of caffeine 293

17.2 Beneficial effects of caffeine 295

17.3 Risks associated with caffeine use 296

17.4 Summary and conclusions 301

18 Furan in Coffee 307
Helmut Guenther

18.1 Introduction 307

18.2 Physical and chemical properties 307

18.3 Toxicology and risk assessment 307

18.4 Occurrence of furan in coffee 309

18.5 Conclusion 316

References 316

Index 319

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Dr Yi-Fang Chu was Head of the Global Coffee Wellness Research Group at Kraft Foods Global Inc., Glenview, Illinois, USA. He is currently with PepsiCo Global Nutrition, Barrington, Illinois
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