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Translational Neuroscience: A Guide to a Successful Program

ISBN: 978-0-470-96071-4
168 pages
February 2012, Wiley-Blackwell
Translational Neuroscience: A Guide to a Successful Program (047096071X) cover image
Translational research looks to take the latest innovations made in the laboratory setting to translate findings into effective and sustainable medical interventions and improved preventative measures. Funding support is increasingly tied to practical healthcare outcomes, with this trend likely only to increase in coming years, Translational Neuroscience: A Guide to a Successful Program, is a timely guide to developing research programs that bring translational advances to the forefront.

Translational Neuroscience provides practical information from scientists with first-hand experience in developing a cutting-edge translational facility. The book opens with chapters that provide guidance to organizing a center for translational science. Chapters look at topics ranging from mentoring and career planning for clinician scientists to improving the design of core facilities and addressing infrastructure needs. The second half of the book provides valuable case studies of translational neuroscience in action, with examples ranging from using to transcranial magnetic stimulation to studies on drug abuse and telemedicine applications. The final chapter looks to the future of basic science research, how academic health centers can be reorganized, and how future generations of translational neuroscientists can be trained.

Translational Neuroscience provides a blueprint to developing an innovative and successful translational research program. Deans, department chairs, academic health center administrators, and researchers will find this guide useful for drafting programs in translational research and avoiding costly pitfalls. While grounded in examples from basic neuroscience research, this book will be a useful tool to all scientists looking to develop centers of translational science across research disciplines.

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Contributors xi

Preface xiii

Acknowledgments xv

1 A Brief History of Translational Neuroscience 1
Edgar Garcia-Rill

Some recent history 1

Funding translational research 3

Lack of funding 4

Making NIH funding more equitable and efficient 6

How much funding is needed? 7

Medical research funding in Europe 10

References 13

2 Mentoring in Translational Neuroscience 15
Edgar Garcia-Rill

T1 blocks 15

T2 blocks 20

References 27

3 Core Facilities for Translational Neuroscience 29
Edgar Garcia-Rill

Designing translational neuroscience core facilities 31

Preattentional measure—the P50 potential 33

Attentional measures—psychomotor vigilance 35

Frontal lobe blood flow measures 36

References 42

4 Translational Studies Using TMS 43
Mark Mennemeier, Christine Sheffer, Abdallah Hayar, and Roger Buchanan

Overview 43

Introduction 44

Development of a sham stimulation technique for humans 45

PET-guided TMS studies of tinnitus perception 46

TMS investigations of decision-making in tobacco addiction 50

TMS investigations in rodents 54

Conclusion 61

References 61

5 Translational Studies in Drug Abuse 67
Veronica Bisagno, William E. Fantegrossi, and Francisco J. Urbano

Background and significance 67

Behavioral Core Facility 70

Voltage-sensitive dye imaging 75

Intravenous drug self-administration 75

References 79

6 Electrophysiology in Translational Neuroscience 83
Edgar Garcia-Rill

In vivo and in vitro animal models 83

Modafinil 84

Patch clamp recordings 85

Gamma band activity 86

Population responses 88

Preconscious awareness 89

Magnetoencephalography, the Cadillac of human electrophysiology 91

References 94

7 Translational Research on Spinal Cord Injury 97
Charlotte Yates and Kevin Garrison

Electrophysiological approach: H-reflex frequency-dependent depression 98

Biomechanical approach: windup of the stretch reflex 100

Interventions: passive exercise 101

Interventions: pharmacology (L-Dopa, Modafinil) 105

Conclusions 106

References 106

8 Translational Research in Neonatology 109
Richard Whit Hall

Introduction 109

The need for neonatal research 110

The building blocks: basic research 110

Pups to babies and back again: T1 Research 111

No problem can be solved unless it is first identified 112

From the bedside to the community: T2 research 113

The role of comparative effectiveness research 116

Barriers and rewards in translational research in neonatology 118

Opportunities for translational research in neonatology 119

Conclusion 119

References 120

9 Telemedicine in Translational Neuroscience 123
Amy Ballard and Richard Whit Hall

History of telemedicine 124

Enabling access to care 125

Telemedicine Core Facility 126

Neonatal intensive care 129

Emergency departments 131

Conclusion 132

References 132

10 Implications for the Future 135
Edgar Garcia-Rill

Fragmented infrastructure 135

Incompatible databases 136

The benefits of translational research 138

The reshaping of basic science departments 139

References 142

Index 145

Color plates appear between pages 96 and 97.

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Edgar Garcia-Rill is Professor of Anatomy and Psychiatry at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences. His research interests include sleep disorders, schizophrenia, depression, PTSD, and aches Neuroscience spinal cord injury. Dr. Garcia-Rill is also Director of the Center for Translational Neuroscience, a didivision of division of the Department of Neurobiology & Dev. Sci. and a research arm of the Jackson T. Stephens Spine & Neuroscience Institute, at which novel treatments for the treatment of spinal cord injury are are being developed under the Spinal Cord Injury Mobilization Program.
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“This is a useful reference for neuroscience program developers such as basic and clinical scientists, administrators of neuroscience centers, department chairs, and deans.”  (Doody’s, 7 September 2012)

 

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