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Biorefinery Co-Products: Phytochemicals, Primary Metabolites and Value-Added Biomass Processing

ISBN: 978-0-470-97357-8
382 pages
April 2012
Biorefinery Co-Products: Phytochemicals, Primary Metabolites and Value-Added Biomass Processing (0470973579) cover image
In order to successfully compete as a sustainable energy source, the value of biomass must be maximized through the production of valuable co-products in the biorefinery.  Specialty chemicals and other biobased products can be extracted from biomass prior to or after the conversion process, thus increasing the overall profitability and sustainability of the biorefinery.

Biorefinery Co-Products highlights various co-products that are present in biomass prior to and after processing, describes strategies for their extraction , and presents examples of bioenergy feedstocks that contain high value products.

Topics covered include:

  • Bioactive compounds from woody biomass
  • Phytochemicals from sugar cane, citrus waste and algae
  • Valuable products from corn and other oil seed crops
  • Proteins from forages
  • Enhancing the value of existing biomass processing streams

Aimed at academic researchers, professionals and specialists in the bioenergy industry, Biorefinery Co-Products is an essential text for all scientists and engineers working on the efficient separation, purification and manufacture of value-added biorefinery co-products.

For more information on the Wiley Series in Renewable resources, visit www.wiley.com/go/rrs

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Series Preface xiii

Preface xv

List of Contributors xvii

1 An Overview of Biorefinery Technology 1
Mahmoud A. Sharara, Edgar C. Clausen and Danielle Julie Carrier

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Feedstock 2

1.3 Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass 4

1.4 Biochemical Conversion 10

1.5 Conclusion 15

2 Overview of the Chemistry of Primary and Secondary Plant Metabolites 19
Chantal Bergeron

2.1 Introduction 19

2.2 Primary Metabolites 20

2.3 Secondary Metabolites 23

2.4 Stability of Isolated Compounds 35

2.5 Conclusion 35

3 Separation and Purification of Phytochemicals as Co-Products in Biorefineries 37
Hua-Jiang Huang and Shri Ramaswamy

3.1 Introduction 37

3.2 Conventional Separation Approaches 39

3.3 Supercritical Fluid Extraction 45

3.4 Separation and Purification of Phytochemicals from Plant Extracts and Dilute Solution in Biorefineries 46

3.5 Summary 49

4 Phytochemicals from Corn: a Processing Perspective 55
Kent Rausch

4.1 Introduction: Corn Processes 55

4.2 Phytochemicals Found in Corn 63

4.3 Corn Processing Effects on Phytochemical Recovery 71

4.4 Conclusions 86

5 Co-Products from Cereal and Oilseed Biorefinery Systems 93
Nurhan Turgut Dunford

5.1 Introduction 93

5.2 Cereals 95

5.3 Oilseed Biorefineries 102

5.4 Conclusions 108

6 Bioactive Soy Co-Products 117
Arvind Kannan, Srinivas Rayaprolu and Navam Hettiarachchy

6.1 Introduction 117

6.2 Co-Products Obtained from Industrial Biorefineries 119

6.3 Technologies Used to Extract Co-Products 122

6.4 Bioactivities and Nutritional Value in Biorefinery Co-Products 123

6.5 Modern Technologies for Efficient Delivery – Nanoencapsulation 126

6.6 Conclusion and Future Prospects 127

7 Production of Valuable Compounds by Supercritical Technology Using Residues from Sugarcane Processing 133
Juliana M. Prado and M. Angela A. Meireles

7.1 Introduction 133

7.2 Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Filter Cake 135

7.3 Process Simulation for Estimating Manufacturing Cost of Extracts 138

7.4 Hydrolysis of Bagasse with Sub/Supercritical Fluids 143

7.5 Conclusions 148

8 Potential Value-Added Co-products from Citrus Fruit Processing 153
John A. Manthey

8.1 Introduction 153

8.2 Fruit Processing and Byproduct Streams 154

8.3 Polysaccharides as Value-Added Products 163

8.4 Phytonutrients as Value-Added Products 165

8.5 Fermentation and Production of Enhanced Byproducts 170

8.6 Conclusion 171

9 Recovery of Leaf Protein for Animal Feed and High-Value Uses 179
Bryan D. Bals, Bruce E. Dale and Venkatesh Balan

9.1 Introduction 179

9.2 Methods of Separating Protein 181

9.3 Protein Concentration 185

9.4 Uses for Leaf Protein 187

9.5 Integration with Biofuel Production 189

9.6 Conclusions 192

10 Phytochemicals from Algae 199
Liam Brennan, Anika Mostaert, Cormac Murphy and Philip Owende

10.1 Introduction 199

10.2 Commercial Applications of Algal Phytochemicals 203

10.3 Production Techniques for Algal Phytochemicals 213

10.4 Extraction Techniques for Algal Phytochemicals 220

10.5 Metabolic Engineering for Synthesis of Algae-Derived Compounds 224

10.6 Phytochemical Market Evolution 228

10.7 Conclusions 228

11 New Bioactive Natural Products from Canadian Boreal Forest 241
Francois Simard, Andre Pichette and Jean Legault

11.1 Introduction 241

11.2 Identification of New Bioactive Natural Products from Canadian Boreal Forest 243

11.3 Chemical Modification of Bioactive Natural Products from the Canadian Boreal Forest 250

11.4 Conclusion 253

12 Pressurized Fluid Extraction and Analysis of Bioactive Compounds in Birch Bark 259
Michelle Co and Charlotta Turner

12.1 Introduction 259

12.2 Qualitative Analysis of Birch Bark 261

12.3 Quantitative Analysis of Bioactive Compounds in Birch 267

12.4 High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Diode Array, Electrochemical and Mass Spectrometric Detection of Antioxidants 270

12.5 Extraction of Bioactive Compounds 272

12.6 Discussion and Future Perspectives 278

13 Adding Value to the Integrated Forest Biorefinery with Co-Products from Hemicellulose-Rich Pre-Pulping Extract 287
Abigail S. Engelberth and G. Peter van Walsum

13.1 Introduction 287

13.2 Hemicellulose Recovery 289

13.3 Hemicellulose Conversion 295

13.4 Process Economics 305

13.5 Conclusion 306

14 Pyrolysis Bio-Oils from Temperate Forests: Fuels, Phytochemicals and Bioproducts 311
Mamdouh Abou-Zaid and Ian M. Scott

14.1 Introduction 311

14.2 Overview of Forest Feedstock 312

14.3 Pyrolysis Technology 317

14.4 Prospects for Fuel Production 317

14.5 Chemicals in the Bio-Oil 318

14.6 Valuable Chemical Recovery Process 320

14.7 Selected Phytochemicals from Pyrolysis Bio-Oils 321

14.8 Other Products 322

14.9 Future Prospects 323

15 Char from Sugarcane Bagasse 327
K. Thomas Klasson

15.1 Introduction 327

15.2 Sugarcane Bagasse Availability 330

15.3 Thermal Processing in an Inert Atmosphere (Pyrolysis) 331

15.4 Technology for Converting Char to Activated Char 332

15.5 Char and Activated-Char Characterization and Implications for Use 333

15.6 Uses of Bagasse Char and Activated Char 343

15.7 Conclusions 345

References 345

Index 351

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