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Power Ultrasound in Electrochemistry: From Versatile Laboratory Tool to Engineering Solution

ISBN: 978-0-470-97424-7
364 pages
March 2012
Power Ultrasound in Electrochemistry: From Versatile Laboratory Tool to Engineering Solution (0470974249) cover image
The use of power ultrasound to promote industrial electrochemical processes, or sonoelectrochemistry, was first discovered over 70 years ago, but recently there has been a revived interest in this field. Sonoelectrochemistry is a technology that is safe, cost-effective, environmentally friendly and energy efficient compared to other conventional methods. 

The book contains chapters on the following topics, contributed from leading researchers in academia and industry: 

  • Use of electrochemistry as a tool to investigate Cavitation Bubble Dynamics
  • Sonoelectroanalysis
  • Sonoelectrochemistry in environmental applications
  • Organic Sonoelectrosynthesis
  • Sonoelectrodeposition
  • Influence of ultrasound on corrosion kinetics and its application to corrosion tests
  • Sonoelectropolymerisation
  • Sonoelectrochemical production of nanomaterials
  • Sonochemistry and Sonoelectrochemistry in hydrogen and fuel cell technologies 
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Foreword xiii

About the Editor xv

List of Contributors xvii

Acknowledgements xix

Introduction to Electrochemistry 1
Bruno G. Pollet and Oliver J. Curnick

I.1 Introduction 1

I.2 Principles of Electrochemistry 1

I.3 Electron-Transfer Kinetics 2

I.4 Determination of Overpotentials 10

I.4.1 Decomposition Voltages 10

I.4.2 Discharge Potentials 10

I.5 Electroanalytical Techniques 11

I.5.1 Voltammetry 11

I.5.2 Amperometry 17

1 An Introduction to Sonoelectrochemistry 21
Timothy J. Mason and Ver´onica S´aez Bernal

1.1 Introduction to Ultrasound and Sonochemistry 21

1.2 Applications of Power Ultrasound through Direct Vibrations 23

1.2.1 Welding 23

1.3 Applications of Power Ultrasound through Cavitation 25

1.3.1 Homogeneous Reactions 26

1.3.2 Heterogeneous Reactions Involving a Solid/Liquid Interface 26

1.3.3 Heterogeneous Liquid/Liquid Reactions 27

1.4 Electrochemistry 27

1.5 Sonoelectrochemistry – The Application of Ultrasound in Electrochemistry 28

1.5.1 Ultrasonic Factors that Influence Sonoelectrochemistry 29

1.6 Examples of the Effect of Ultrasound on Electrochemical Processes under Mass Transport Conditions 32

1.7 Experimental Methods for Sonoelectrochemistry 34

1.7.1 Cell Construction 34

1.7.2 Stability of the Electrodes Under Sonication 36

1.7.3 Some Applications of Sonoelectrochemistry 38

2 The Use of Electrochemistry as a Tool to Investigate Cavitation Bubble Dynamics 45
Peter R. Birkin

2.1 Introduction 45

2.2 An Overview of Bubble Behaviour 46

2.3 Mass Transfer Effects of Cavitation 48

2.4 Isolating Single Mechanisms for Mass Transfer Enhancement 48

2.5 Electrochemistry Next to a Tethered Permanent Gas Bubble 51

2.6 Mass Transfer from Forced Permanent Gas Bubble Oscillation 55

2.7 Mass Transfer Effects from Single Inertial Cavitation Bubbles 62

2.8 Investigating Non-inertial Cavitation Under an Ultrasonic Horn 65

2.9 Measuring Individual Erosion Events from Inertial Cavitation 67

2.10 Conclusions 73

3 Sonoelectroanalysis: An Overview 79
Jonathan P. Metters, Jaanus Kruusma and Craig E. Banks

3.1 Introduction 79

3.2 Analysis of Pesticides 87

3.3 Quantifying Nitrite 87

3.4 Biogeochemistry 88

3.5 Quantifying Metal in 'Life or Death' Situations 89

3.6 Analysis of Trace Metals in Clinical Samples 90

3.7 Biphasic Sonoelectroanalysis 92

3.8 Applying Ultrasound into the Field: The Sonotrode 93

3.9 Conclusions 93

4 Sonoelectrochemistry in Environmental Applications 101
Pedro L. Bonete Ferrandez, Marıa Deseada Esclapez, Veronica Saez Bernal and Jose Gonzalez-Garcıa

4.1 Introduction 101

4.2 Sonoelectrochemical Degradation of Persistent Organic Pollutants 102

4.2.1 Sonoelectrochemical Applications 102

4.2.2 Hybrid Sonoelectrochemical Techniques Applications 115

4.3 Recovery of Metals and Treatment of Toxic Inorganic Compounds 121

4.4 Disinfection of Water by Hypochlorite Generation 129

4.5 Soil Remediation 130

4.6 Conclusions 134

5 Organic Sonoelectrosynthesis 141
David J. Walton

5.1 Introduction 141

5.2 Scale-Up Considerations 142

5.3 Early History of Organic Sonoelectrochemistry 143

5.4 Electroorganic Syntheses 144

5.4.1 Electroreductions 144

5.4.2 Organochalcogenides 149

5.4.3 Synthetic Electrooxidations 151

5.4.4 Sonoelectrochemically Produced Electrode Coatings: Desirable and Undesirable 157

5.5 Other Systems 161

5.5.1 Hydrodynamics 161

5.5.2 Low-temperature Effects 162

5.6 Conclusions 163

6 Sonoelectrodeposition: The Use of Ultrasound in Metallic Coatings Deposition 169
Jean-Yves Hihn, Francis Touyeras, Marie-Laure Doche, Cedric Costa and Bruno G. Pollet

6.1 Introduction to Metal Plating 169

6.1.1 Why the Need to Cover Surfaces with Metals? 169

6.1.2 Process and Technology of Plating 170

6.2 The Use of Ultrasound in Surface Treatment 170

6.2.1 Ultrasound in the Cleaning Step for Surface Treatment Processes 170

6.3 Ultrasound and Plating: Why Study Plating under Sonication? 172

6.4 Electrodeposition Assisted by Ultrasound 173

6.4.1 The Electrodeposition Process 173

6.4.2 Ultrasonic Effects on Electrodeposited Coating Properties 175

6.4.3 Microscopic Effects of Ultrasound on Electrodeposited Metal Coatings 179

6.4.4 The Influence of Acoustic Energy Distribution on Coatings 182

6.4.5 Influence of Ultrasound on Copper Electrodeposition in Unconventional Solvents 187

6.4.6 Incorporation of Particles Assisted by Ultrasound 195

6.5 Electroless Coating Assisted by Ultrasound 198

6.5.1 The Electroless Process 198

6.5.2 Ultrasound Effects upon Electroless Coating Properties 198

6.5.3 Copper Coating on Non-conductive Substrates under Insonation 201

7 Influence of Ultrasound on Corrosion Kinetics and its Application to Corrosion Tests 215
Marie-Laure Doche and Jean-Yves Hihn

7.1 Introduction to Metal Corrosion 215

7.1.1 What Exactly is Corrosion? 215

7.1.2 Why Do Metals Corrode? 215

7.1.3 The Price to Pay: the Economical Impact of Corrosion 216

7.1.4 Corrosion Control Technology: the Need for Reliable Corrosion Tests 217

7.1.5 Why Study Corrosion Under Sonication? 219

7.1.6 Corrosion and Corrosion-Cavitation Mechanisms 220

7.1.7 Corrosion Rate 221

7.1.8 Electrochemical Study of Corrosion Reactions 222

7.1.9 Forms of Corrosion 223

7.1.10 Cavitation-Corrosion 223

7.2 Influence of Ultrasound on the Corrosion Mechanisms of Metals 231

7.2.1 Influence of Ultrasound on General Corrosion 232

7.2.2 Influence of Ultrasound on Passivity of Metals 240

7.3 Ultrasound as a Tool to Develop Accelerated Corrosion Testing 242

7.3.1 Atmospheric Corrosion of Zinc Plated Steel 242

7.3.2 Accelerated Corrosion Test for Stainless Steel Used in Exhaust Systems 243

7.3.3 Accelerated Corrosion Test for Evaluating Oilfield Corrosion Inhibitors 243

7.3.4 Accelerated Corrosion Test for Surgical Implant Materials in Body Fluids 244

8 Sonoelectropolymerisation 249
Fabrice Lallemand, Jean-Yves Hihn, Mahito Atobe and Abdeslam Et Taouil

8.1 Introduction to Electropolymerisation 249

8.2 Innovative Processes for Electrode Activation 251

8.3 Solubilisation of Monomers with Ultrasound 256

8.4 Chemical Polymerisation 257

8.5 Electropolymerisation under Ultrasonic Irradiation 259

8.6 Effects of Ultrasound on Film Properties 262

8.6.1 Mass-Transfer Effect 262

8.6.2 Morphology Effect 264

8.6.3 Doping Effect 272

8.6.4 Effect on Local Control of Surfaces 276

9 Sonoelectrochemical Production of Nanomaterials 283
Jonathan P. Metters and Craig E. Banks

9.1 Introduction 283

9.2 Experimental Configurations 286

9.3 Pure Metals 287

9.3.1 Cobalt, Iron and Nickel 287

9.3.2 Silver 287

9.3.3 Copper 288

9.3.4 Magnesium 288

9.3.5 Aluminium 289

9.3.6 Lead and Cadmium 290

9.3.7 Core Shell Nanoparticles 290

9.3.8 Gold 292

9.3.9 Tungsten 295

9.4 Alloy Nanoparticles 295

9.5 Polymer Nanoparticles 296

9.6 Conclusions 296

10 Sonochemistry and Sonoelectrochemistry in Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies 301
Bruno G. Pollet

10.1 Introduction 301

10.2 Sonoelectrochemical Production of Hydrogen 303

10.3 Sonochemical Production of Noble Metals and Fuel Cell Electrocatalysts 305

10.3.1 Sonochemical Mono-Metallic Syntheses 306

10.3.2 Sonochemical Bi-Metallic Syntheses 309

10.3.3 Sonochemical Perovskite Oxides Syntheses 311

10.4 Sonoelectrochemical Production of Noble Metals and Fuel Cell Electrocatalysts 311

10.4.1 Effect of Surfactants and Polymers 315

10.4.2 Effect of Aqueous Solutions 317

10.5 Sonochemical and Sonoelectrochemical Preparation of Fuel Cell Electrodes 318

10.6 Industrial Applications of the Use of Ultrasound for the Fabrication of Fuel Cell Materials 319

10.7 Conclusions 320

Acknowledgement 321

List of Abbreviations 321

References 322

Appendix: Sonochemical Effects on Electrode Kinetics 327

Index 335

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Bruno Pollet is a Fellow of The Royal Society of Chemistry and expert in the area of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell, Electrochemical Engineering and Sonoelectrochemistry. He is Associate Director of the University of Birmingham Centre for Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Research, Head of the PEMFC Research Group, CTO of H2-Technologies Inc., Technical Director of H2Power Ltd and Visiting Professor at The University of Yamanashi (Japan).
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Do you think you've discovered an error in this book? Please check the list of errata below to see if we've already addressed the error. If not, please submit the error via our Errata Form. We will attempt to verify your error; if you're right, we will post a correction below.

ChapterPageDetailsDatePrint Run
Prelims xvii Errata for list of contributors
Two contributors are listed incorrectly. Mahito Atobe is at the Graduate School of Environment and Information Science, Yokohama National University, 79-5 Tokowadai, Hodogaya-ku, Yokohama, 240-8501, Japan And Cedric Costa is at Equipe Sonochimie et R?activit? des Surfaces, Institut UTINAM UMR CNRS 6213, Universit? de Franche-Comt?, 25009 Besan?on, France.
6/2/12 620
10.2 3 Chapter 10.2 credits
Chapter 10.2 is the result of work from both Bruno Pollet, and Daniel Symes, Centre for Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Research, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK. Any citation should reflect the authorship of both Bruno and Daniel.
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