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Electrical Energy Efficiency: Technologies and Applications

ISBN: 978-0-470-97551-0
434 pages
April 2012
Electrical Energy Efficiency: Technologies and Applications (0470975512) cover image
The improvement of electrical energy efficiency is fast becoming one of the most essential areas of sustainability development, backed by political initiatives to control and reduce energy demand.

Now a major topic in industry and the electrical engineering research community, engineers have started to focus on analysis, diagnosis and possible solutions. Owing to the complexity and cross-disciplinary nature of electrical energy efficiency issues, the optimal solution is often multi-faceted with a critical solutions evaluation component to ensure cost effectiveness.

This single-source reference brings a practical focus to the subject of electrical energy efficiency, providing detailed theory and practical applications to enable engineers to find solutions for electroefficiency problems. It presents power supplier as well as electricity user perspectives and promotes routine implementation of good engineering practice.

Key features include:

  • a comprehensive overview of the different technologies involved in electroefficiency, outlining monitoring and control concepts and practical design techniques used in industrial applications;
  • description of the current standards of electrical motors, with illustrative case studies showing how to achieve better design;
  • up-to-date information on standarization, technologies, economic realities and energy efficiency indicators (the main types and international results);
  • coverage on the quality and efficiency of distribution systems (the impact on distribution systems and loads, and the calculation of power losses in distribution lines and in power transformers).

With invaluable practical advice, this book is suited to practicing electrical engineers, design engineers, installation designers, M&E designers, and economic engineers. It equips maintenance and energy managers, planners, and infrastructure managers with the necessary knowledge to properly evaluate the wealth of electrical energy efficiency solutions for large investments. This reference also provides interesting reading material for energy researchers, policy makers, consultants, postgraduate engineering students and final year undergraduate engineering students.

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List of Contributors xi

Preface xiii

Foreword xv

1 Overview of Standardization of Energy Efficiency 1
Franco Bua and Angelo Baggini

1.1 Standardization 3

1.1.1 ISO 4

1.1.2 IEC 5

1.1.3 CEN and CENELEC 6

Further Readings 8

2 Cables and Lines 9
Paola Pezzini and Andreas Sumper

2.1 Theory of Heat Transfer 10

2.1.1 Conduction 10

2.1.2 Convection 10

2.1.3 Radiation 11

2.2 Current Rating of Cables Installed in Free Air 12

2.3 Economic Aspects 15

2.4 Calculation of the Current Rating: Total Costs 16

2.4.1 Evaluation of CJ 16

2.5 Determination of Economic Conductor Sizes 18

2.5.1 Economic Current Range for Each Conductor in a Series of Sizes 18

2.5.2 Economic Conductor Size for a Given Load 18

2.6 Summary 19

References 19

3 Power Transformers 21
Roman Targosz, Stefan Fassbinder and Angelo Baggini

3.1 Losses in Transformers 23

3.1.1 No-Load Losses 23

3.1.2 Load Losses 24

3.1.3 Auxiliary Losses 24

3.1.4 Extra Losses due to Harmonics, Unbalance and Reactive Power 25

3.2 Efficiency and Load Factor 30

3.3 Losses and Cooling System 31

3.4 Energy Efficiency Standards and Regulations 32

3.4.1 MEPS 37

3.4.2 Mandatory Labelling 37

3.4.3 Voluntary Programmes 37

3.5 Life Cycle Costing 39

3.5.1 Life Cycle Cost of Transformers 40

3.5.2 Detailed Considerations 44

3.6 Design, Material and Manufacturing 47

3.6.1 Core 47

3.6.2 Windings 52

3.6.3 Other Developments 54

3.7 Case Study – Evaluation TOC of an Industrial Transformer 54

3.7.1 Method 55

3.7.2 Results 56

References 59

Further Readings 59

3.A Annex 60

3.A.1 Selected MEPS 60

4 Building Automation, Control and Management Systems 71
Angelo Baggini and Annalisa Marra

4.1 Automation Functions for Energy Savings 72

4.1.1 Temperature Control 72

4.1.2 Lighting 74

4.1.3 Drives and Motors 74

4.1.4 Technical Alarms and Management 75

4.1.5 Remote Control 76

4.2 Automation Systems 76

4.2.1 KNX Systems 77

4.2.2 Scada Systems 82

4.3 Automation Device Own Consumption 86

4.4 Basic Schemes 86

4.4.1 Heating and Cooling 86

4.4.2 Ventilation and Air Conditioning 95

4.4.3 Lighting 107

4.4.4 Sunscreens 109

4.4.5 Technical Building Management 110

4.4.6 Technical Installations in the Building 111

4.5 The Estimate of Building Energy Performance 113

4.5.1 European Standard EN 15232 113

4.5.2 Comparison of Methods: Detailed Calculations and BAC Factors 115

Further Readings 124

5 Power Quality Phenomena and Indicators 125
Andrei Cziker, Zbigniew Hanzelka and Ireana Wasiak

5.1 RMS Voltage Level 126

5.1.1 Sources 127

5.1.2 Effects on Energy Efficiency 128

5.1.3 Mitigation Methods 130

5.2 Voltage Fluctuations 132

5.2.1 Disturbance Description 132

5.2.2 Sources of Voltage Fluctuations 134

5.2.3 Effects and Cost 135

5.2.4 Mitigation Methods 138

5.3 Voltage and Current Unbalance 138

5.3.1 Disturbance Description 139

5.3.2 Sources 140

5.3.3 Effect and Cost 140

5.3.4 Mitigation Methods 143

5.4 Voltage and Current Distortion 145

5.4.1 Disturbance Description 145

5.4.2 Sources 146

5.4.3 Effects and Cost 147

5.4.4 Mitigation Methods 153

References 162

Further Readings 162

6 On Site Generation and Microgrids 165
Irena Wasiak and Zbigniew Hanzelka

6.1 Technologies of Distributed Energy Resources 166

6.1.1 Energy Sources 166

6.1.2 Energy Storage 170

6.2 Impact of DG on Power Losses in Distribution Networks 175

6.3 Microgrids 178

6.3.1 Concept 178

6.3.2 Energy Storage Applications 180

6.3.3 Management and Control 182

6.3.4 Power Quality and Reliability in Microgrids 184

References 186

Further Readings 187

7 Electric Motors 189
Joris Lemmens and Wim Deprez

7.1 Losses in Electric Motors 190

7.1.1 Power Balance and Energy Efficiency 191

7.1.2 Loss Components Classification 193

7.1.3 Influence Factors 195

7.2 Motor Efficiency Standards 199

7.2.1 Efficiency Classification Standards 199

7.2.2 Efficiency Measurement Standards 200

7.2.3 Future Standard for Variable Speed Drives 207

7.3 High Efficiency Motor Technology 208

7.3.1 Motor Materials 210

7.3.2 Motor Design 218

7.3.3 Motor Manufacturing 224

References 226

8 Lighting 229
Mircea Chindris and Antoni Sudria-Andreu

8.1 Energy and Lighting Systems 230

8.1.1 Energy Consumption in Lighting Systems 230

8.1.2 Energy Efficiency in Lighting Systems 231

8.2 Regulations 233

8.3 Technological Advances in Lighting Systems 234

8.3.1 Efficient Light Sources 234

8.3.2 Efficient Ballasts 239

8.3.3 Efficient Luminaries 241

8.4 Energy Efficiency in Indoor Lighting Systems 242

8.4.1 Policy Actions to Support Energy Efficiency 242

8.4.2 Retrofit or Redesign? 245

8.4.3 Lighting Controls 247

8.4.4 Daylighting 251

8.5 Energy Efficiency in Outdoor Lighting Systems 252

8.5.1 Efficient Lamps and Luminaires 253

8.5.2 Outdoor Lighting Controls 256

8.6 Maintenance of Lighting Systems 259

References 260

Further Readings 261

9 Electrical Drives and Power Electronics 263
Daniel Montesinos-Miracle, Joan Bergas-Jan´e and Edris Pouresmaeil

9.1 Control Methods for Induction Motors and PMSM 266

9.1.1 V/f Control 266

9.1.2 Vector Control 271

9.1.3 DTC 272

9.2 Energy Optimal Control Methods 274

9.2.1 Converter Losses 275

9.2.2 Motor Losses 276

9.2.3 Energy Optimal Control Strategies 276

9.3 Topology of the Variable Speed Drive 276

9.3.1 Input Stage 277

9.3.2 DC Bus 278

9.3.3 The Inverter 279

9.4 New Trends on Power Semiconductors 280

9.4.1 Modulation Techniques 281

9.4.2 Review of Different Modulation Methods 283

References 291

Further Readings 193

10 Industrial Heating Processes 295
Mircea Chindris and Andreas Sumper

10.1 General Aspects Regarding Electroheating in Industry 298

10.2 Main Electroheating Technologies 302

10.2.1 Resistance Heating 302

10.2.2 Infrared Heating 309

10.2.3 Induction Heating 314

10.2.4 Dielectric Heating 318

10.2.5 Arc Furnaces 325

10.3 Specific Aspects Regarding the Increase of Energy Efficiency in Industrial Heating Processes 326

10.3.1 Replacement of Traditional Heating Technologies 327

10.3.2 Selection of the Most Suitable Electrotechnology 329

10.3.3 Increasing the Efficiency of the Existing Electroheating Equipment 330

References 333

Further Readings 334

11 Heat, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) 335
Roberto Villafafila-Robles and Jaume Salom

11.1 Basic Concepts 336

11.2 Environmental Thermal Comfort 338

11.3 HVAC Systems 342

11.3.1 Energy Conversion 344

11.3.2 Energy Balance 346

11.3.3 Energy Efficiency 347

11.4 Energy Measures in HVAC Systems 348

11.4.1 Final Service 348

11.4.2 Passive Methods 348

11.4.3 Conversion Device 351

11.4.4 Energy Sources 353

References 354

Further Readings 355

12 Data Centres 357
Angelo Baggini and Franco Bua

12.1 Standards 357

12.2 Consumption Profile 358

12.2.1 Energy Performance Index 360

12.3 IT Infrastructure and Equipment 360

12.3.1 Blade Server 360

12.3.2 Storage 361

12.3.3 Network Equipment 361

12.3.4 Consolidation 362

12.3.5 Virtualization 362

12.3.6 Software 363

12.4 Facility Infrastructure 363

12.4.1 Electrical Infrastructure 363

12.4.2 HVAC Infrastructure 365

12.5 DG and CHP for Data Centres 368

12.6 Organizing for Energy Efficiency 369

Further Readings 370

13 Reactive Power Compensation 371
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Zbigniew Hanzelka, Waldemar Szpyra, Andrei Cziker and Krzysztof Piatek

13.1 Reactive Power Compensation in an Electric Utility Network 373

13.1.1 Economic Efficiency of Reactive Power Compensation 377

13.2 Reactive Power Compensation in an Industrial Network 380

13.2.1 Linear Loads 381

13.2.2 Group Compensation 383

13.2.3 Nonlinear Loads 387

13.3 Var Compensation 391

13.3.1 A Synchronous Condenser 391

13.3.2 Capacitor Banks 392

13.3.3 Power Electronic Compensators/Stabilizers 393

References 398

Further Readings 398

Index 399

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