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Ecohydraulics: An Integrated Approach

ISBN: 978-0-470-97600-5
462 pages
September 2013, Wiley-Blackwell
Ecohydraulics: An Integrated Approach (0470976004) cover image

Ecohydraulics: An Integrated Approachprovides a research level text which highlights recent developments of this emerging and expanding field.  With a focus on interdisciplinary research the text examines:-

  • the evolution and scope of ecohydraulics
  • interactions between hydraulics, hydrology, fluvial geomorphology and aquatic ecology
  • the application of habitat modelling in ecohydraulic studies
  • state of the art methodological developments and approaches
  • detailed case studies including fish passage design and the management of environmental flow regimes
  • research needs and the future of ecohydraulics research

The contributions offer broad geographic coverage to encapsulate the wide range of approaches, case studies and methods used to conduct ecohydraulics research. The book considers a range of spatial and temporal scales of relevance and aquatic organisms ranging from algae and macrophytes to macroinvertebrates and fish.  River management and restoration are also considered in detail, making this volume of direct relevance to those concerned with cutting edge research and its application for water resource management.

Aimed at academics and postgraduate researchers in departments of physical geography, earth sciences, environmental science, environmental management, civil engineering, biology, zoology, botany and ecology; Ecohydraulics: An Integrated Approach will be of direct relevance to academics, researchers and professionals working in environmental research organisations, national agencies and consultancies.

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List of Contributors, xi

1 Ecohydraulics: An Introduction, 1
Ian Maddock, Atle Harby, Paul Kemp and Paul Wood

1.1 Introduction, 1

1.2 The emergence of ecohydraulics, 2

1.3 Scope and organisation of this book, 4

References, 4

Part I Methods and Approaches

2 Incorporating Hydrodynamics into Ecohydraulics: The Role of Turbulence in the Swimming Performance and Habitat Selection of Stream-Dwelling Fish, 9
Martin A. Wilkes, Ian Maddock, Fleur Visser and Michael C. Acreman

2.1 Introduction, 9

2.2 Turbulence: theory, structure and measurement, 11

2.3 The role of turbulence in the swimming performance and habitat selection of river-dwelling fish, 20

2.4 Conclusions, 24

Acknowledgements, 25

References, 25

3 Hydraulic Modelling Approaches for Ecohydraulic Studies: 3D, 2D, 1D and Non-Numerical Models, 31
Daniele Tonina and Klaus Jorde

3.1 Introduction, 31

3.2 Types of hydraulic modelling, 32

3.3 Elements of numerical hydrodynamic modelling, 33

3.4 3D modelling, 49

3.5 2D models, 55

3.6 1D models, 57

3.7 River floodplain interaction, 59

3.8 Non-numerical hydraulic modelling, 60

3.9 Case studies, 60

3.10 Conclusions, 64

Acknowledgements, 66

References, 66

4 The Habitat Modelling System CASiMiR: A Multivariate Fuzzy Approach and its Applications, 75
Markus Noack, Matthias Schneider and Silke Wieprecht

4.1 Introduction, 75

4.2 Theoretical basics of the habitat simulation tool CASiMiR, 76

4.3 Comparison of habitat modelling using the multivariate fuzzy approach and univariate preference functions, 80

4.4 Simulation of spawning habitats considering morphodynamic processes, 82

4.5 Habitat modelling on meso- to basin-scale, 85

4.6 Discussion and conclusions, 87

References, 89

5 Data-Driven Fuzzy Habitat Models: Impact of Performance Criteria and Opportunities for Ecohydraulics, 93
Ans Mouton, Bernard De Baets and Peter Goethals

5.1 Challenges for species distribution models, 93

5.2 Fuzzy modelling, 95

5.3 Case study, 100

References, 105

6 Applications of the MesoHABSIM Simulation Model, 109
Piotr Parasiewicz, Joseph N. Rogers, Paolo Vezza, Javier Gort´azar, Thomas Seager, Mark Pegg, Wiesaw Wi´sniewolski and Claudio Comoglio

6.1 Introduction, 109

6.2 Model summary, 109

Acknowledgements, 123

References, 123

7 The Role of Geomorphology and Hydrology in Determining Spatial-Scale Units for Ecohydraulics, 125
Elisa Zavadil and Michael Stewardson

7.1 Introduction, 125

7.2 Continuum and dis-continuum views of stream networks, 126

7.3 Evolution of the geomorphic scale hierarchy, 127

7.4 Defining scale units, 131

7.5 Advancing the scale hierarchy: future research priorities, 139

References, 139

8 Developing Realistic Fish Passage Criteria: An Ecohydraulics Approach, 143
Andrew S. Vowles, Lynda R. Eakins, Adam T. Piper, James R. Kerr and Paul Kemp

8.1 Introduction, 143

8.2 Developing fish passage criteria, 144

8.3 Conclusions, 151

8.4 Future challenges, 152

References, 152

Part II Species–Habitat Interactions

9 Habitat Use and Selection by Brown Trout in Streams, 159
Jan Heggenes and Jens Wollebæk

9.1 Introduction, 159

9.2 Observation methods and bias, 160

9.3 Habitat, 161

9.4 Abiotic and biotic factors, 161

9.5 Key hydraulic factors, 163

9.6 Habitat selection, 163

9.7 Temporal variability: light and flows, 166

9.8 Energetic and biomass models, 168

9.9 The hyporheic zone, 169

9.10 Spatial and temporal complexity of redd microhabitat, 169

9.11 Summary and ways forward, 170

References, 170

10 Salmonid Habitats in Riverine Winter Conditions with Ice, 177
Ari Huusko, Teppo Vehanen and Morten Stickler

10.1 Introduction, 177

10.2 Ice processes in running waters, 178

10.3 Salmonids in winter ice conditions, 182

10.4 Summary and ways forward, 186

References, 188

11 Stream Habitat Associations of the Foothill Yellow-Legged Frog (Rana boylii): The Importance of Habitat Heterogeneity, 193
Sarah Yarnell

11.1 Introduction, 193

11.2 Methods for quantifying stream habitat, 194

11.3 Observed relationships between R. boylii and stream habitat, 198

11.4 Discussion, 204

References, 209

12 Testing the Relationship Between Surface Flow Types and Benthic Macroinvertebrates, 213
Graham Hill, Ian Maddock and Melanie Bickerton

12.1 Background, 213

12.2 Ecohydraulic relationships between habitat and biota, 213

12.3 Case study, 216

12.4 Discussion, 223

12.5 Wider implications, 226

12.6 Conclusion, 227

References, 227

13 The Impact of Altered Flow Regime on Periphyton, 229
Natasą§a Smolar-Zą§vanut and Aleksandra Krivograd Klemencą§icą§

13.1 Introduction, 229

13.2 Modified flow regimes, 230

13.3 The impact of altered flow regime on periphyton, 231

13.4 Case studies from Slovenia, 236

13.5 Conclusions, 240

References, 240

14 Ecohydraulics and Aquatic Macrophytes: Assessing the Relationship in River Floodplains, 245
Georg A. Janauer, Udo Schmidt-Mumm and Walter Reckendorfer

14.1 Introduction, 245

14.2 Macrophytes, 246

14.3 Life forms of macrophytes in running waters, 248

14.4 Application of ecohydraulics for management: a case study on the Danube River and its floodplain, 249

14.5 Conclusion, 255

Acknowledgements, 255

Appendix 14.A: Abbreviations used in Figure 14.5, including full plant names and authorities, 255

References, 256

15 Multi-Scale Macrophyte Responses to Hydrodynamic Stress and Disturbances: Adaptive Strategies and Biodiversity Patterns, 261
Sara Puijalon and Gudrun Bornette

15.1 Introduction, 261

15.2 Individual and patch-scale response to hydrodynamic stress and disturbances, 262

15.3 Community responses to temporary peaks of flow and current velocity, 266

15.4 Macrophyte abundance, biodiversity and succession, 268

15.5 Conclusion, 269

References, 270

Part III Management Application Case Studies

16 Application of Real-Time Management for Environmental Flow Regimes, 277
Thomas B. Hardy and Thomas A. Shaw

16.1 Introduction, 277

16.2 Real-time management, 278

16.3 The setting, 278

16.4 The context and challenges with present water allocation strategies, 281

16.5 The issues concerning the implementation of environmental flow regimes, 282

16.6 Underlying science for environmental flows in the Klamath River, 283

16.7 The Water Resource Integrated Modelling System for The Klamath Basin Restoration Agreement, 285

16.8 The solution – real-time management, 285

16.9 Example RTM implementation, 287

16.10 RTM performance, 287

16.11 Discussion, 290

16.12 Conclusions, 290

Acknowledgements, 291

References, 291

17 Hydraulic Modelling of Floodplain Vegetation in Korea: Development and Applications, 293
Hyoseop Woo and Sung-Uk Choi

17.1 Introduction, 293

17.2 Modelling of vegetated flows, 294

17.3 Floodplain vegetation modelling: From white rivers to green rivers, 300

17.4 Conclusions, 306

References, 306

18 A Historical Perspective on Downstream Passage at Hydroelectric Plants in Swedish Rivers, 309
Olle Calles, Peter Rivinoja and Larry Greenberg

18.1 Introduction, 309

18.2 Historical review of downstream bypass problems in Sweden, 310

18.3 Rehabilitating downstream passage in Swedish Rivers today, 312

18.4 Concluding remarks, 319

References, 320

19 Rapid Flow Fluctuations and Impacts on Fish and the Aquatic Ecosystem, 323
Atle Harby and Markus Noack

19.1 Introduction, 323

19.2 Rapid flow fluctuations, 325

19.3 Methods to study rapid flow fluctuations and their impact, 325

19.4 Results, 326

19.5 Mitigation, 329

19.6 Discussion and future work, 331

Acknowledgements, 333

References, 334

20 Ecohydraulic Design of Riffle-Pool Relief and Morphological Unit Geometry in Support of Regulated Gravel-Bed River Rehabilitation, 337
Gregory B. Pasternack and Rocko A. Brown

20.1 Introduction, 337

20.2 Experimental design, 338

20.3 Results, 347

20.4 Discussion and conclusions, 351

Acknowledgements, 353

References, 353

21 Ecohydraulics for River Management: Can Mesoscale Lotic Macroinvertebrate Data Inform Macroscale Ecosystem Assessment?, 357
Jessica M. Orlofske, Wendy A. Monk and Donald J. Baird

21.1 Introduction, 357

21.2 Lotic macroinvertebrates in a management context, 358

21.3 Patterns in lotic macroinvertebrate response to hydraulic variables, 359

21.4 Linking ecohydraulics and lotic macroinvertebrate traits, 365

21.5 Trait variation among lotic macroinvertebrates in LIFE flow groups, 366

21.6 Upscaling from ecohydraulics to management, 370

21.7 Conclusions, 371

References, 371

22 Estuarine Wetland Ecohydraulics and Migratory Shorebird Habitat Restoration, 375
Jos´e F. Rodr´„guez and Alice Howe

22.1 Introduction, 375

22.2 Area E of Kooragang Island, 377

22.3 Ecohydraulic and ecogeomorphic characterisation, 378

22.4 Modifying vegetation distribution by hydraulic manipulation, 382

22.5 Discussion, 388

22.6 Conclusions and recommendations, 390

References, 392

23 Ecohydraulics at the Landscape Scale: Applying the Concept of Temporal Landscape Continuity in River Restoration Using Cyclic Floodplain Rejuvenation, 395
Gertjan W. Geerling, Harm Duel, Anthonie D. Buijse and Antonius J.M. Smits

23.1 Introduction, 395

23.2 The inspiration: landscape dynamics of meandering rivers, 397

23.3 The concept: temporal continuity and discontinuity of landscapes along regulated rivers, 399

23.4 Application: floodplain restoration in a heavily regulated river, 401

23.5 The strategy in regulated rivers: cyclic floodplain rejuvenation (CFR), 403

23.6 General conclusions, 405

References, 405

24 Embodying Interactions Between Riparian Vegetation and Fluvial Hydraulic Processes Within a Dynamic Floodplain Model: Concepts and Applications, 407
Gregory Egger, Emilio Politti, Virginia Gar´ofano-G´omez, Bernadette Blamauer, Teresa Ferreira, Rui Rivaes, Rohan Benjankar and Helmut Habersack

24.1 Introduction, 407

24.2 Physical habitat and its effects on floodplain vegetation, 408

24.3 Succession phases and their environmental context, 410

24.4 Response of floodplain vegetation to fluvial processes, 414

24.5 Linking fluvial processes and vegetation: the disturbance regime approach as the backbone for the dynamic model, 415

24.6 Model applications, 417

24.7 Conclusion, 423

Acknowledgements, 424

References, 424

Part IV Conclusion

25 Research Needs, Challenges and the Future of Ecohydraulics Research, 431
Ian Maddock, Atle Harby, Paul Kemp and Paul Wood

25.1 Introduction, 431

25.2 Research needs and future challenges, 432

References, 435

Index, 437

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EDITORS
IAN MADDOCK, Institute of Science and the Environment, University of Worcester, UK

ATLE HARBY, SINTEF Energy Research, Trondheim, Norway

PAUL KEMP, International Centre for Ecohydraulics Research, University of Southampton, UK

PAUL WOOD, Department of Geography, Loughborough University, Leicestershire, UK AN INTEGRATED APPROACH

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