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Onshore and Offshore Wind Energy: An Introduction

ISBN: 978-0-470-97608-1
240 pages
December 2011
Onshore and Offshore Wind Energy: An Introduction (047097608X) cover image


A highly accessible and authoritative account of wind energy’s scientific background, current technology, and international status, with an emphasis on large turbines and wind farms, both onshore and offshore

Topics covered include:

  • a brief history of wind energy
  • the nature of the wind
  • turbine aerodynamics, mechanics, and electrics
  • wind farms
  • offshore opportunities and challenges
  • grid integration of wind energy
  • economic and environmental aspects

Whilst intellectually rigorous, this is not an academic treatise. Key equations are fully discussed, providing essential theoretical background. The text is supported by copious illustrations and about 50 inspiring full-colour photographs from around the world.

This book is aimed at a wide readership including professionals, policy makers and employees in the energy sector in need of a basic appreciation of the underlying principles of wind energy or a quick update. Its style and level will also appeal to second and third year undergraduate and postgraduate students of renewable and wind energy, energy systems and electrical/electronic engineering. It also gives a concise account of the technology for the large and growing number of people who are interested in onshore and offshore wind farms and the contribution they are making to carbon-free electricity generation in the 21st century.

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Table of Contents

Preface ix

Acknowledgements xi

1. Introduction 1

1.1 Wind energy and Planet Earth 1

1.2 Winds of the world 5

1.3 From windmills to wind turbines 9

1.4 Power, energy and performance 17

1.5 Coming up to date 24

References 29

2. Capturing the wind 31

2.1 Wind speed and power 31

2.2 Wild wind 37

2.2.1 Introductory 37

2.2.2 Wind statistics 40

2.2.3 Mapping and forecasting 49

2.3 Predicting turbine output 57

References 61

3. Wind turbines 63

3.1 Turbine types and sizes 63

3.2 Aerodynamics 69

3.2.1 Rotor effi ciency and the Betz Limit 69

3.2.2 Lift and drag 72

3.2.3 Rotor speed 80

3.2.4 Rotor blades 87 Choosing airfoils 87 Stall and pitch control 90

3.3 Mechanics 94

3.3.1 Gearboxes 94

3.3.2 Towers 97

3.3.3 Vibration and fatigue 98

3.4 Electrics 107

3.4.1 AC electricity 107

3.4.2 Generators 116 Introductory 116 Synchronous generators 122 Asynchronous generators 128 Squirrel-cage and wound-rotor induction machines 128 Doubly-fed induction generators 133

3.5 Turbine control 138

3.6 Onshore wind farms 143

3.6.1 Introductory 143

3.6.2 Siting and spacing 146

3.6.3 Monitoring and control 150

References 152

4. Moving offshore 153

4.1 Introductory 153

4.2 Wind and waves 157

4.3 Turbines and foundations 161

4.4 Offshore wind farms 166

4.4.1 Case study: Horns Rev 2 166

4.4.2 Case study: London Array 170

4.5 Bringing the power ashore 173

References 177

5. Grid integration 179

5.1 Setting the scene 179

5.2 Connecting to the grid 182

5.2.1 Grid strength and fault levels 182

5.2.2 Electrical quality 186

5.3 Large-scale wind power 190

5.3.1 Introductory 190

5.3.2 Intermittency and variability 191

5.3.3 Capacity credit and backup generation 194

References 198

6. Economics and the environment 199

6.1 Wind energy economics 199

6.1.1 Capital and installation costs 199

6.1.2 Operation, maintenance and cash fl ow 202

6.2 Environmental aspects 204

6.2.1 Introductory 204

6.2.2 Landscape and amenity 207

6.2.3 Birds, bats and farming 211

6.2.4 Seabirds, fi sh and marine conservation 216

References 218

Index 219

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Author Information

Dr Paul A. Lynn, Consultant, UK
Paul Lynn was Founding Managing Editor of the successful and highly prestigious Wiley journal, Progress in Photovoltaics, from 1993 until 2006. He was formally Assistant Lecturer at Imperial College London and Lecturer and Reader in Electrical and Electronic Engineering at the University of Bristol from 1969 until 1984.
As a retired academic, Paul Lynn's continued interest in renewable energy includes designing and building solar-powered boats. He designed and constructed the catamaran that completed the first ever solar-powered voyage along the non-Tidal Thames in 2003. He was awarded 1st and 2nd prizes in the Sustainable Transport section at the Royal Bath & West show in 2008 for two more recent solar catamarans.
Paul Lynn has written six technical books to date and is author of over 50 technical papers and articles.
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“This is a first rate book and, as I have alluded to earlier, I look forward to a second edition in 2–3 years’ time giving an update on the current situation.”  (Chromatographia, 1 August 2013)

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