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Separation and Purification Technologies in Biorefineries

Shri Ramaswamy (Editor), Hua-Jiang Huang (Editor), Bandaru V. Ramarao (Editor)
ISBN: 978-0-470-97796-5
608 pages
April 2013
Separation and Purification Technologies in Biorefineries (0470977965) cover image
Separation and purification processes play a critical role in biorefineries and their optimal selection, design and operation to maximise product yields and improve overall process efficiency. Separations and purifications are necessary for upstream processes as well as in maximising and improving product recovery in downstream processes. These processes account for a significant fraction of the total capital and operating costs and also are highly energy intensive. Consequently, a better understanding of separation and purification processes, current and possible alternative and novel advanced methods is essential for achieving the overall techno-economic feasibility and commercial success of sustainable biorefineries.

This book presents a comprehensive overview focused specifically on the present state, future challenges and opportunities for separation and purification methods and technologies in biorefineries.

Topics covered include:

Equilibrium Separations: Distillation, liquid-liquid extraction and supercritical fluid extraction.
Affinity-Based Separations: Adsorption, ion exchange, and simulated moving bed technologies.
Membrane Based Separations:
Microfiltration, ultrafiltration and diafiltration, nanofiltration, membrane pervaporation, and membrane distillation.
Solid-liquid Separations: Conventional filtration and solid-liquid extraction.
Hybrid/Integrated Reaction-Separation Systems: Membrane bioreactors, extractive fermentation, reactive distillation and reactive absorption.

For each of these processes, the fundamental principles and design aspects are presented, followed by a detailed discussion and specific examples of applications in biorefineries. Each chapter also considers the market needs, industrial challenges, future opportunities, and economic importance of the separation and purification methods. The book concludes with a series of detailed case studies including cellulosic bioethanol production, extraction of algae oil from microalgae, and production of biopolymers.

Separation and Purification Technologies in Biorefineries is an essential resource for scientists and engineers, as well as researchers and academics working in the broader conventional and emerging bio-based products industry, including biomaterials, biochemicals, biofuels and bioenergy.
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List of Contributors xix

Preface xxiii

PART I INTRODUCTION 1

1 Overview of Biomass Conversion Processes and Separation and Purification Technologies in Biorefineries 3
Hua-Jiang Huang and Shri Ramaswamy

1.1 Introduction 3

1.2 Biochemical conversion biorefineries 4

1.3 Thermo-chemical and other chemical conversion biorefineries 8

1.4 Integrated lignocellulose biorefineries 14

1.5 Separation and purification processes 15

1.6 Summary 27

References 28

PART II EQUILIBRIUM-BASED SEPARATION TECHNOLOGIES 37

2 Distillation 39
Zhigang Lei and Biaohua Chen

2.1 Introduction 39

2.2 Ordinary distillation 40

2.3 Azeotropic distillation 45

2.4 Extractive distillation 48

2.5 Molecular distillation 54

2.6 Comparisons of different distillation processes 55

2.7 Conclusions and future trends 58

Acknowledgement 58

References 58

3 Liquid-Liquid Extraction (LLE) 61
Jianguo Zhang and Bo Hu

3.1 Introduction to LLE: Literature review and recent developments 61

3.2 Fundamental principles of LLE 62

3.3 Categories of LLE design 65

3.4 Equipment for the LLE process 67

3.5 Applications in biorefineries 70

3.6 The future development of LLE for the biorefinery setting 74

References 75

4 Supercritical Fluid Extraction 79
Casimiro Mantell, Lourdes Casas, Miguel Rodríguez and Enrique Martínez de la Ossa

4.1 Introduction 79

4.2 Principles of supercritical fluids 81

4.3 Market and industrial needs 83

4.4 Design and modeling of the process 84

4.4.1 Film theory 88

4.5 Specific examples in biorefineries 89

4.6 Economic importance and industrial challenges 93

4.7 Conclusions and future trends 96

References 96

PART III AFFINITY-BASED SEPARATION TECHNOLOGIES 101

5 Adsorption 103
Saravanan Venkatesan

5.1 Introduction 103

5.2 Essential principles of adsorption 104

5.3 Adsorbent selection criteria 110

5.4 Commercial and new adsorbents and their properties 111

5.5 Adsorption separation processes 116

5.6 Adsorber modeling 123

5.7 Application of adsorption in biorefineries 124

5.8 A case study: Recovery of 1-butanol from ABE fermentation broth using TSA 136

5.9 Research needs and prospects 142

5.10 Conclusions 143

Acknowledgement 143

References 143

6 Ion Exchange 149
M. Berrios, J. A. Siles, M. A. Martín and A. Martín

6.1 Introduction 149

6.1.1 Ion exchangers: Operational conditions—sorbent selection 150

6.2 Essential principles 151

6.3 Ion-exchange market and industrial needs 153

6.4 Commercial ion-exchange resins 154

6.5 Specific examples in biorefineries 156

6.6 Conclusions and future trends 164

References 164

7 Simulated Moving-Bed Technology for Biorefinery Applications 167
Chim Yong Chin and Nien-Hwa Linda Wang

7.1 Introduction 167

7.2 Essential SMB design principles and tools 171

7.3 Simulated moving-bed technology in biorefineries 191

7.4 Conclusions and future trends 197

References 197

PART IV MEMBRANE SEPARATION 203

8 Microfiltration, Ultrafiltration and Diafiltration 205
Ann-Sofi Jönsson

8.1 Introduction 205

8.2 Membrane plant design 207

8.3 Economic considerations 210

8.4 Process design 213

8.5 Operating parameters 216

8.6 Diafiltration 222

8.7 Fouling and cleaning 224

8.8 Conclusions and future trends 226

References 226

9 Nanofiltration 233
Mika Mänttäri, Bart Van der Bruggen and Marianne Nyström

9.1 Introduction 233

9.2 Nanofiltration market and industrial needs 235

9.3 Fundamental principles 236

9.4 Design and simulation 238

9.5 Membrane materials and properties 241

9.6 Commercial nanofiltration membranes 245

9.7 Nanofiltration examples in biorefineries 246

9.8 Conclusions and challenges 256

References 256

10 Membrane Pervaporation 259
Yan Wang, Natalia Widjojo, Panu Sukitpaneenit and Tai-Shung Chung

10.1 Introduction 259

10.2 Membrane pervaporation market and industrial needs 260

10.3 Fundamental principles 261

10.4 Design principles of the pervaporation membrane 265

10.5 Pervaporation in the current integrated biorefinery system 283

10.6 Conclusions and future trends 288

Acknowledgements 289

References 289

11 Membrane Distillation 301
M. A. Izquierdo-Gil

11.1 Introduction 301

11.2 Membrane distillation market and industrial needs 304

11.3 Basic principles of membrane distillation 308

11.4 Design and simulation 313

11.5 Examples in biorefineries 315

11.6 Economic importance and industrial challenges 317

11.7 Comparisons with other membrane-separation technologies 319

11.8 Conclusions and future trends 321

References 322

PART V SOLID-LIQUID SEPARATIONS 327

12 Filtration-Based Separations in the Biorefinery 329
Bhavin V. Bhayani and Bandaru V. Ramarao

12.1 Introduction 329

12.2 Biorefinery 330

12.3 Solid–liquid separations in the biorefinery 335

12.4 Introduction to cake filtration 336

12.5 Basics of cake filtration 336

12.6 Designing a dead-end filtration 340

12.7 Model development 346

12.8 Conclusions 348

References 348

13 Solid–Liquid Extraction in Biorefinery 351
Zurina Zainal Abidin, Dayang Radiah Awang Biak, Hamdan Mohamed Yusoff and Mohd Yusof Harun

13.1 Introduction 351

13.2 Principles of solid–liquid extraction 352

13.3 State of the art technology 356

13.4 Design and modeling of SLE process 357

13.5 Industrial extractors 363

13.6 Economic importance and industrial challenges 368

13.7 Conclusions 371

References 371

PART VI HYBRID/INTEGRATED REACTION-SEPARATION SYSTEMS—PROCESS INTENSIFICATION 375

14 Membrane Bioreactors for Biofuel Production 377
Sara M. Badenes, Frederico Castelo Ferreira and Joaquim M. S. Cabral

14.1 Introduction 377

14.2 Basic principles 381

14.2.1 Biofuels: Production principles and biological systems 381

14.3 Examples of membrane bioreactors for biofuel production 390

14.4 Conclusions and future trends 403

References 404

15 Extraction-Fermentation Hybrid (Extractive Fermentation) 409
Shang-Tian Yang and Congcong Lu

15.1 Introduction 409

15.2 The market and industrial needs 410

15.3 Basic principles of extractive fermentation 412

15.4 Separation technologies for integrated fermentation product recovery 413

15.5 Examples in biorefineries 426

15.6 Economic importance and industrial challenges 428

15.7 Conclusions and future trends 431

References 431

16 Reactive Distillation for the Biorefinery 439
Aspi K. Kolah, Carl T. Lira and Dennis J. Miller

16.1 Introduction 439

16.2 Column internals for reactive distillation 441

16.3 Simulation of reactive distillation systems 446

16.4 Reactive distillation for the biorefinery 451

16.5 Recently commercialized reactive distillation processes for the biorefinery 458

16.6 Conclusions 458

References 459

17 Reactive Absorption 467
Anton A. Kiss and Costin Sorin Bildea

17.1 Introduction 467

17.2 Market and industrial needs 468

17.3 Basic principles of reactive absorption 468

17.4 Modelling, design and simulation 469

17.5 Case study: Biodiesel production by catalytic reactive absorption 470

17.6 Economic importance and industrial challenges 482

17.7 Conclusions and future trends 482

References 482

PART VII CASE STUDIES OF SEPARATION AND PURIFICATION TECHNOLOGIES IN BIOREFINERIES 485

18 Cellulosic Bioethanol Production 487
Mats Galbe, Ola Wallberg and Guido Zacchi

18.1 Introduction: The market and industrial needs 487

18.2 Separation procedures and their integration within a bioethanol plant 488

18.3 Importance and challenges of separation processes 490

18.4 Pilot and demonstration scale 498

18.5 Conclusions and future trends 500

References 500

19 Dehydration of Ethanol using Pressure Swing Adsorption 503
Marian Simo

19.1 Introduction 503

19.2 Ethanol dehydration process using pressure swing adsorption 504

19.3 Future trends and industrial challenges 510

19.4 Conclusions 511

References 511

20 Separation and Purification of Lignocellulose Hydrolyzates 513
G. Peter van Walsum

20.1 Introduction 513

20.2 The market and industrial needs 516

20.3 Operation variables and conditions 517

20.4 The hydrolyzates detoxification and separation processes 519

20.5 Separation performances and results 524

20.6 Economic importance and industrial challenges 525

20.7 Conclusions 527

References 527

21 Case Studies of Separation in Biorefineries—Extraction of Algae Oil from Microalgae 533
Michael Cooney

21.1 Introduction 533

21.2 The market and industrial needs 534

21.3 The algae oil extraction process 539

21.4 Extraction 540

21.5 Separation performance and results 546

21.6 Economic importance and industrial challenges 548

21.7 Conclusions and future trends 549

References 550

22 Separation Processes in Biopolymer Production 555
Sanjay P. Kamble, Prashant P. Barve, Imran Rahman and Bhaskar D. Kulkarni

22.1 Introduction 555

22.2 The market and industrial needs 556

22.3 Lactic acid recovery processes 559

22.4 Separation performance and results of autocatalytic counter current reactive distillation of lactic acid with methanol and hydrolysis of methyl lactate into highly pure lactic acid using 3-CSTRs in series 561

22.5 Economic importance and industrial challenges 564

22.6 Conclusions and future trends 565

Acknowledgements 566

References 566

Index 569

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Editors:

Shri Ramaswamy
Department of Bioproducts and Biosystems Engineering, University of Minnesota, USA

Hua-Jiang Huang
Department of Bioproducts and Biosystems Engineering, University of Minnesota, USA

Bandaru V. Ramarao
Department of Paper & Bioprocess Engineering, State University of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry, USA

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