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Glial Physiology and Pathophysiology

Alexei Verkhratsky (Editor), Arthur Butt (Editor)
ISBN: 978-0-470-97852-8
560 pages
April 2013, Wiley-Blackwell
Glial Physiology and Pathophysiology (047097852X) cover image

Description

Glial Physiology and Pathophysiology provides a comprehensive, advanced text on the biology and pathology of glial cells.

Coverage includes:
  • the morphology and interrelationships between glial cells and neurones in different parts of the nervous systems
  • the cellular physiology of the different kinds of glial cells
  • the mechanisms of intra- and inter-cellular signalling in glial networks
  • the mechanisms of glial-neuronal communications
  • the role of glial cells in synaptic plasticity, neuronal survival and development of nervous system
  • the cellular and molecular mechanisms of metabolic neuronal-glial interactions
  • the role of glia in nervous system pathology, including pathology of glial cells and associated diseases - for example, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's, Alexander disease and Parkinson's
Neuroglia oversee the birth and development of neurones, the establishment of interneuronal connections (the 'connectome'), the maintenance and removal of these inter-neuronal connections, writing of the nervous system components, adult neurogenesis, the energetics of nervous tissue, metabolism of neurotransmitters, regulation of ion composition of the interstitial space and many, many more homeostatic functions. This book primes the reader towards the notion that nervous tissue is not divided into more important and less important cells. The nervous tissue functions because of the coherent and concerted action of many different cell types, each contributing to an ultimate output. This reaches its zenith in humans, with the creation of thoughts, underlying acquisition of knowledge, its analysis and synthesis, and contemplating the Universe and our place in it.
  • An up-to-date and fully referenced text on the most numerous cells in the human brain
  • Detailed coverage of the morphology and interrelationships between glial cells and neurones in different parts of the nervous system
  • Describes the role of glial cells in neuropathology
  • Focus boxes highlight key points and summarise important facts
  • Companion website with downloadable figures and slides
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Table of Contents

Preface xvii

About the Authors xxi

Abbreviations xxv

About the Companion Website xxxii

1 History of Neuroscience and the Dawn of Research in Neuroglia 1

1.1 The miraculous human brain: localising the brain functions 1

1.2 Cellular organisation of the brain 10

1.3 Mechanisms of communications in neural networks 14

1.4 The concept of neuroglia 27

1.5 Beginning of the modern era 47

1.6 Concluding remarks 49

References 49

2 General Overview of Signalling in the Nervous System 59

2.1 Intercellular signalling: wiring and volume modes of transmission 59

2.2 Cellular signalling: receptors 62

2.3 Intracellular signalling: second messengers 67

2.4 Calcium signalling 67

2.5 Concluding remarks 72

3 Neuroglia: Definition, Classification, Evolution, Numbers, Development 73

3.1 Definition of neuroglia as homeostatic cells of the nervous system 74

3.2 Classification 75

3.3 Evolution of neuroglia 76

3.4 Numbers: how many glial cells are in the brain? 93

3.5 Embryogenesis and development of neuroglia in mammals 96

3.6 Concluding remarks 99

References 100

4 Astroglia 105

4.1 Definition and heterogeneity 107

4.2 Morphology of the main types of astroglia 113

4.3 How to identify astrocytes in the nervous tissue 119

4.4 Astroglial syncytial networks 120

4.5 Physiology of astroglia 125

4.6 Functions of astroglia 175

4.7 Concluding remarks 231

References 231

5 Oligodendrocytes 245

5.1 Oligodendrocyte anatomy 247

5.2 Myelin structure and function 252

5.3 Physiology of oligodendrocytes 266

5.4 Oligodendrocyte development 283

5.5 Concluding remarks 299

References 299

6 NG2-glial Cells 321

6.1 Definition of NG2-glia 321

6.2 Structure of NG2-glia 324

6.3 Physiology of NG2-glia 327

6.4 Proliferation of NG2-glia and generation of oligodendrocytes 332

6.5 Relationship between NG2-glia and CNS pericytes 333

6.6 Evolution of NG2-glia 336

6.7 Concluding remarks 337

References 337

7 Microglia 343

7.1 Definition of microglia 344

7.2 Microglial origin and development 345

7.3 Morphology of microglia 345

7.4 General physiology of microglia 351

7.5 Microglial migration and motility 372

7.6 Physiological functions of microglia: role in synaptic transmission and plasticity 373

7.7 Microglia in ageing 375

7.8 Concluding remarks 375

References 376

8 Peripheral Glial Cells 381

8.1 Peripheral nervous system 382

8.2 Schwann cells 390

8.3 Satellite glial cells 407

8.4 Enteric glia 412

8.5 Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) 418

8.6 Concluding remarks 422

References 423

9 General Pathophysiology of Neuroglia 431

9.1 Neurological disorders as gliopathologies 431

9.2 Reactive astrogliosis 433

9.3 Wallerian degeneration 439

9.4 Excitotoxic vulnerability of oligodendrocytes: the death of white matter 442

9.5 Activation of microglia 444

9.6 Concluding remarks 449

References 450

10 Neuroglia in Neurological Diseases 453

10.1 Introduction 454

10.2 Genetic astrogliopathology: Alexander disease 456

10.3 Stroke and ischaemia 458

10.4 Migraine and spreading depression 467

10.5 CNS oedema 469

10.6 Metabolic disorders 471

10.7 Toxic encephalopathies 473

10.8 Neurodegenerative diseases 474

10.9 Leukodystrophies 487

10.10 Epilepsy 488

10.11 Psychiatric diseases 490

10.12 Autistic disorders 491

10.13 Neuropathic pain 492

10.14 Demyelinating diseases 494

10.15 Infectious diseases 496

10.16 Peripheral neuropathies 499

10.17 Gliomas 501

10.18 Concluding remarks 504

References 504

Author Index 513

Subject Index 517

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