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Handbook of Marine Macroalgae: Biotechnology and Applied Phycology

Se-Kwon Kim (Editor)
ISBN: 978-0-470-97918-1
592 pages
November 2011
Handbook of Marine Macroalgae: Biotechnology and Applied Phycology (0470979186) cover image
The Handbook of Macroalgae: Biotechnology and Applied Phycology describes the biological, biotechnological and the industrial applications of seaweeds. Vast research into the cultivation of seaweeds is currently being undertaken but there is a lack of methodological strategies in place to develop novel drugs from these sources. This book aims to rectify this situation, providing an important review of recent advances and potential new applications for macroalgae. Focusing on the chemical and structural nature of seaweeds the book brings the potentially valuable bioactive nature to the fore. Novel compounds isolated from seaweeds are reviewed to provide an invaluable reference for anyone working in the field.
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List of Contributors xvii

Preface xxi

Editor xxiii

PART I Introduction to Algae and Their Importance

1 Biological Importance of Marine Algae 3
Ali A. El Gamal

1.1 Introduction 3

1.2 Interesting natural products and their biological activities from macroalgae (seaweeds) 4

Acknowledgment 27

References 27

2 Seaweeds: The Wealth of Oceans 36
Upadhyayula Suryanarayana Murty and Amit Kumar Banerjee

2.1 Introduction 36

2.2 Need for marine resources 36

2.3 Various marine resources 36

2.4 Producers in the marine environment 37

2.5 Emergent plants 37

2.6 Seaweed diversity 37

2.7 Uses of seaweeds 37

2.8 Marine farming: global scenario 39

2.9 SEAPURA: an EU effort 39

2.10 Seaweed farming: an Indian scenario 40

2.11 Expanding the existing knowledge base: current research trends in exploring seaweeds 41

2.12 Future prospects 42

2.13 Conclusion 43

References 43

3 Eco-Biochemical Studies of Common Seaweeds in the Lower Gangetic Delta 45
Rajrupa Ghosh, Kakoli Banerjee and Abhijit Mitra

3.1 Seaweeds: an overview 45

3.2 Commercial uses of seaweeds 46

3.3 Indian scenario 46

3.4 Biochemical composition of seaweeds with special reference to Indian Sundarbans 51

References 55

4 Chemodiversity and Bioactivity within Red and Brown Macroalgae Along the French coasts, Metropole and Overseas Departements and Territories 58
Nathalie Bourgougnon and Valerie Stiger-Pouvreau

4.1 Introduction 58

4.2 Exploitation of marine algal resources 60

4.3 Why a focus on red and brown seaweeds? 64

4.4 Marine red seaweeds and biological activities 64

4.5 Marine brown seaweeds and biological activities 68

4.6 The use of metabolites from marine red and brown algae for their chemical defense 73

4.7 The use of metabolites as chemomarkers for taxonomy 81

4.8 Industrial uses of metabolites from marine red and brown algae 82

4.9 Conclusion 89

Acknowledgments 89

References 90

5 Physiological Basis for the use of Seaweeds as Indicators of Anthropogenic Pressures: The Case of Green Tides 106
Jesús M. Mercado

5.1 Introduction 106

5.2 Light absorption 107

5.3 Photosynthesis at sub- and saturating irradiance 108

5.4 Inorganic carbon acquisition 110

5.5 Does the high capacity for using bicarbonate favor the development of green tides? 111

5.6 Conclusions 111

Acknowledgments 112

References 112

6 Significance of the Presence of Trace and Ultratrace Elements in Seaweeds 116
Antonio Moreda-Piñeiro, Elena Peña-V´azquez and Pilar Bermejo-Barrera

6.1 Introduction 116

6.2 Mineral content in seaweed 117

6.3 Trace and ultratrace elements in seaweeds 117

6.5 Chemical speciation 154

References 164

PART II Isolation and Chemical Properties of Molecules Derived from Seaweeds

7 Chemical Composition of Seaweeds 173
Ladislava Mišurcová

7.1 Introduction 173

7.2 Various components of seaweeds 174

7.3 Conclusion 186

References 186

8 Structural Peculiarities of Sulfated Polysaccharides from Red Algae Tichocarpus crinitus (Tichocarpaceae) and Chondrus pinnulatus (Gigartinaceae) Collected at the Russian Pacific Coast 193
Anna O. Barabanova and Irina M. Yermak

8.1 Introduction 193

8.2 Carrageenan sources in the Russian Far East 196

8.3 The polysaccharide composition of algae in relation to the phase of its life cycle 197

8.4 The rheological and viscosity properties of carrageenan from C. pinnulatus and T. crinitus 200

References 201

9 Extraction and Characterization of Seaweed Nanoparticles for Application on Cotton Fabric 205
Sivalingam Thambidurai

9.1 Introduction 205

9.2 Textile materials 205

9.3 Antimicrobial agents 208

9.4 Seaweeds 211

9.5 Extraction and characterization 212

9.6 Antibacterial finishing 216

9.7 Permanent finish 217

Acknowledgments 217

References 218

10 Enzyme-assisted Extraction and Recovery of Bioactive Components from Seaweeds 221
You-Jin Jeon, W.A.J.P Wijesinghe and Se-Kwon Kim

10.1 Introduction 221

10.2 Extraction of bioactive compounds from seaweeds 222

10.3 Role of cell wall degrading enzymes 222

10.4 Importance of enzyme treatment prior to extraction of bioactive compounds 222

10.5 Selection of the enzyme/s and the extraction conditions 222

10.6 Bioactive peptides from seaweeds 223

10.7 Conclusions 226

References 226

11 Structure and Use of Algal Sulfated Fucans and Galactans 229
Vitor H. Pomin

11.1 Introduction 229

11.2 Phylogenetic distribution 230

11.3 Common methods for extraction and structural analyses 230

11.4 General structural features related to phylogenetic occurrence 239

11.5 Industrial applications 242

11.6 Pharmacological properties 247

11.6.7 Effects on cellular growth, migration and adhesion 254

11.7 Major conclusions 255

Acknowledgments 255

References 255

12 Bioactive Metabolites from Seaweeds 262
Jing Hu, Bin Yang, Xiuping Lin, Xue-Feng Zhou, Xian-Wen Yang, and Yonghong Liu

12.1 Introduction 262

12.2 Chemical constituents 263

12.3 Conclusions 280

References 281

13 Seaweed Digestibility and Methods Used for Digestibility Determination 285
Ladislava Mišurcová

13.1 Digestibility 285

13.2 Methods of seaweed digestibility assessment 287

13.3 Factors influencing digestibility of seaweed and seaweed products 291

13.4 Evaluation of seaweed digestibility 295

13.5 Contribution of seaweed to food and feed digestibility 296

13.6 Conclusion 297

References 297

14 Metallation of Seaweed Fucus vesiculosus Metallothionein: As3+ and Cd2+ binding 302
Thanh T. Ngu and Martin J. Stillman

14.1 Introduction 302

14.2 Characterization of the rfMT 303

14.3 Equilibrium metallation studies of rfMT studied using ESI-MS and UV-visible absorption techniques 304

14.4 Dynamic metallation studies of rfMT studied using ESI-MS techniques 306

14.5 Conclusions 315

Acknowledgments 315

References 315

PART III Biological Properties of Molecules Derived from Seaweeds

15 In Vivo and in Vitro Toxicity Studies of Fucoxanthin, a Marine Carotenoid 321
Yoshimi Niwano and Fumiaki Beppu

15.1 Introduction 321

15.2 In vivo oral toxicity study 321

15.3 In vitro and in vivo mutagenicity study 324

15.4 Conclusion 327

References 327

16 Brown Seaweed Lipids as Potential Source of Omega-3 PUFA in Biological Systems 329
Kazuo Miyashita, Bhaskar Narayan, Takayuki Tsukui, Hiroyuki Kamogawa, Masayuki Abe, and Masashi Hosokawa

16.1 Introduction 329

16.2 Omega-3 and omega-6 PUFA 330

16.3 Importance of omega-3 PUFA on human health 331

16.4 Brown seaweed lipids 332

16.5 Bioconversion of LN to DHA 333

16.6 Hepatic DHA enhancement in mice by fucoxanthin 333

16.7 Conclusion 335

References 335

17 Immune Regulatory Effects of Phlorotannins Derived From Marine Brown Algae (Phaeophyta) 340
Phuong Hong Nguyen, il-Whan Choi, Se-Kwon Kim and Won-Kyo Jung

17.1 Introduction 340

17.2 Anti-inflammatory effects of phlorotannins on RAW264.7 macrophage cells 343

17.3 Neuroprotective effects of phlorotannins on BV2 microglial cells 344

17.4 Anti-allergic effects of phlorotannins 344

17.5 Conclusion 346

Acknowledgments 346

References 346

18 In Vivo and In Vitro Studies of Seaweed Compounds 348
Raquel Dom´ınguez Gonzalez, Vanessa Romaris Hortas and Pilar Bermejo Barrera

18.1 Introduction 348

18.2 Methods to study compound bioaccessibility 349

18.3 In vivo versus in vitro methods 352

18.4 Methods with cell culture models 352

18.5 Conclusions 352

References 352

19 Brown Seaweed-Derived Phenolic Phytochemicals and Their Biological Activities for Functional Food Ingredients with Focus on Ascophyllum nodosum 356
Emmanouil Apostolidis and Chong M. Lee

19.1 Introduction: seaweed-derived functional food ingredients 356

19.2 Major commercial brown seaweeds 357

19.3 Brown seaweeds and phenolic phytochemicals 359

19.4 Ascophyllum nodosum: importance and health benefits 361

19.5 Conclusions 365

References 366

20 Antiobesity and Antidiabetic Effects of Seaweeds 371
Chang-Suk Kong and Se-Kwon Kim

20.1 Introduction 371

20.2 Antiobesity and antidiabetic effects of seaweed 372

20.3 Conclusions 375

References 375

21 Health Beneficial Aspects of Phloroglucinol Derivatives from Marine Brown Algae 378
Noel Vinay Thomas and Se-Kwon Kim

21.1 Introduction 378

21.2 Phloroglucinol derivatives (phlorotannins) from marine brown algae 378

21.3 Health beneficial aspects of brown algal phlorotannins 381

21.4 Conclusions and future prospects 385

References 385

22 Biological Effects of Proteins Extracted from Marine Algae 387
Taek-Jeong Nam

22.1 Introduction 387

22.2 Stimulatory effect of a glycoprotein from LAMINARIA Japonica on cell proliferation 387

22.3 Chemoprotective effect of marine algae extracts against acetaminophen toxicity 389

References 396

23 Functional Ingredients from Marine Algae as Potential Antioxidants in the Food Industry 398
Isuru Wijesekara, Mahinda Senevirathne, Yong-Xin Li and Se-Kwon Kim

23.1 Introduction 398

23.2 Marine algae-derived functional ingredients and their antioxidant effect 399

23.3 Conclusion 401

References 401

24 Algal Carotenoids as Potent Antioxidants 403
Kazuo Miyashita, M. Airanthi K. Widjaja-Adhi, Masayuki Abe, and Masashi Hosokawa

24.1 Introduction 403

24.2 Algal carotenoids 404

24.3 Carotenoids as dietary antioxidants 405

24.4 Brown seaweeds as rich source of antioxidants 406

24.5 Antioxidant activity of algal carotenoids 408

24.6 Antiobesity and antidiabetic effect of fucoxanthin 409

24.7 Conclusion 410

References 410

PART IV Biotechnology of Seaweeds

25 Anti-HIV Activities of Marine Macroalgae 417
Thanh-Sang Vo, Dai-Hung Ngo and Se-Kwon Kim

25.1 Introduction 417

25.2 Potential anti-HIV agents from marine macroalgae 417

25.3 Conclusion 421

References 421

26 Biotechnology of Seaweeds: Facing the Coming Decade 424
Lin Hanzhi, Qin Song and Jiang Peng

26.1 Introduction 424

26.2 Biotechnology of seaweeds in ‘blue farming’ 424

26.3 Biotechnology of seaweeds in the chemical industry and pharmacy 425

26.4 Biotechnology of seaweeds in a changing world: their role in bioremediation and bioenergy 426

Acknowledgment 427

References 427

27 Current Trends and Future Prospects of Biotechnological Interventions Through Plant Tissue Culture in Seaweeds 431
Abdul Bakrudeen Ali Ahmed and Rosna Mat Taha

27.1 Introduction 431

27.2 Explants, sterilization and methods used in seaweed production 432

27.3 Micropropagation of seaweeds 434

27.4 Callus and cell suspension culture in seaweed production 435

27.5 Bioprocess technology and cell culture in seaweed production 436

27.6 Remarks and conclusion 438

References 438

28 Detoxification Mechanisms of Heavy Metals by Algal–Bacteria Consortia 441
Enrique J. Peña-Salamanca, Ana Lucia Rengifo-Gallego and Neyla Benitez-Campo

28.1 Introduction 441

28.2 Mechanisms used by algae in heavy metals tolerance and removal 442

28.3 Algal–bacterial mechanisms involved in heavy metal detoxification 444

28.4 Algal–bacteria consortia in the red alga Bostrychia calliptera (Rhodomelaceae) 445

28.5 Biological treatment of heavy metals 446

28.6 Biotechnological applications 447

28.7 Conclusions and future remarks 448

References 448

PART V Natural Resource Management and Industrial Applications of Seaweeds 29 Manufacturing Technology of Bioenergy Using Algae 453
Gyung-Soo Kim

29.1 Introduction 453

29.2 Bioethanol types and characteristics 453

29.3 Foreign and domestic bioethanol industries and technologies 454

29.4 Algal biomass characteristics 455

29.5 Red algae bioethanol production technology 455

29.6 Future technology outlook 459

Acknowledgments 459

References 459

30 Seaweed as an Adsorbent to Treat Cr(VI)-Contaminated Wastewater 461
Saroj Sundar Baral

30.1 Importance of chromium 461

30.2 Harmful effects of Cr(VI) 461

30.3 Different methods of treatment 462

30.4 Case study on adsorptive removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous solution using seaweed Hydrilla verticillata 465

References 475

31 Using the Biomass of Seaweeds in the Production of Components of Feed and Fertilizers 478
Katarzyna Chojnacka

31.1 Introduction 478

31.2 Seaweeds in fertilizers 478

31.3 Seaweeds in feeds for animals 481

31.4 Using the biomass of seaweeds enriched with microelements by biosorpion in nutrition of plants and animals 484

31.5 Conclusions 486

Acknowledgments 487

References 487

32 Applications of Seaweed in Meat-Based Functional Foods 491
Susana Cofrades, In´es López-López and Francisco Jiménez-Colmenero

32.1 Introduction 491

32.2 Meat-based functional foods 491

32.3 Seaweed as a functional food ingredient in meat products 492

32.4 Conclusions 495

Acknowledgment 496

References 496

33 Industrial Applications of Macroalgae 500
A. Malshani Samaraweera, Janak K. Vidanarachchi and Maheshika S. Kurukulasuriya

33.1 Introduction 500

33.2 Composition of seaweeds 500

33.3 Seaweeds as vegetables: their nutritive value 503

33.4 Applications as functional foods 505

33.5 Application of seaweeds as antioxidants in the food industry 506

33.6 Industrial applications of phycocolloids 508

33.7 Biomedical applications 510

33.8 Macroalgal-derived cosmeceuticals 513

33.9 Applications in agriculture 514

33.10 Applications in pollution detection and control 515

33.11 Utilization of macroalgae for energy production 515

33.12 Conclusions 516

References 516

34 Application of Seaweeds in the Food Industry 522
Cristina García Sartal, María Carmen Barciela Alonso and Pilar Bermejo Barrera

34.1 Introduction 522

34.2 Compounds extracted from algae of interest to the human nutrition industry 522

34.3 Animal feeding 527

34.4 Fertilizers 528

34.5 Conclusion 529

References 529

35 A Dimensional Investigation on Seaweeds: Their Biomedical and Industrial Applications 532
Sudha Narayanan Parapurath, Hebsibah Elsie Bernard, Dhanarajan Malli Subramaniamc and Ramya Ramamurthy

35.1 Introduction 532

35.2 Biomedical applications of seaweeds 534

35.3 Industrial applications of seaweeds 537

35.4 Conclusion 538

Acknowledgment 538

References 538

36 Seaweed Polysaccharides – Food Applications 541
Vazhiyil Venugopal Menon

36.1 Introduction 541

36.2 Major functions of polysaccharides in a food system 541

36.3 Interactions of polysaccharides with food components 542

36.4 Major food applications of polysaccharides 542

36.5 Regulatory and commercial aspects 551

References 552

Index 557

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Professor Se-Kwon Kim is the Director of the Marine Bioprocess Research Center, Department of Chemistry, Pukyong National University, in Busan, South Korea.

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