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Sense and Avoid in UAS: Research and Applications

Plamen Angelov (Editor)
ISBN: 978-0-470-97975-4
384 pages
April 2012
Sense and Avoid in UAS: Research and Applications (0470979755) cover image

There is increasing interest in the potential of UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) and MAV (Micro Air Vehicle) technology and their wide ranging applications including defence missions, reconnaissance and surveillance, border patrol, disaster zone assessment and atmospheric research. High investment levels from the military sector globally is driving research and development and increasing the viability of autonomous platforms as replacements for the remotely piloted vehicles more commonly in use.

UAV/UAS pose a number of new challenges, with the autonomy and in particular collision avoidance, detect and avoid, or sense and avoid, as the most challenging one, involving both regulatory and technical issues. 

Sense and Avoid in UAS: Research and Applications covers the problem of detect, sense and avoid in UAS (Unmanned Aircraft Systems) in depth and combines the theoretical and application results by leading academics and researchers from industry and academia.

Key features:

  • Presents a holistic view of the sense and avoid problem in the wider application of autonomous systems
  • Includes information on human factors, regulatory issues and navigation, control, aerodynamics and physics aspects of the sense and avoid problem in UAS
  • Provides professional, scientific and reliable content that is easy to understand, and
  • Includes contributions from leading engineers and researchers in the field
Sense and Avoid in UAS: Research and Applications is an invaluable source of original and specialised information. It acts as a reference manual for practising engineers and advanced theoretical researchers and also forms a useful resource for younger engineers and postgraduate students. With its credible sources and thorough review process, Sense and Avoid in UAS: Research and Applications provides a reliable source of information in an area that is fast expanding but scarcely covered.
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Preface xv

About the Editor xix

About the Contributors xxi

Part I Introduction

1 Introduction 3

George Limnaios, Nikos Tsourveloudis and Kimon P. Valavanis

1.1 UAV versus UAS 3

1.2 Historical Perspective on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles 5

1.3 UAV Classification 9

1.4 UAV Applications 14

1.5 UAS Market Overview 17

1.6 UAS Future Challenges 20

1.7 Fault Tolerance for UAS 26

References 31

2 Performance Tradeoffs and the Development of Standards 35

Andrew Zeitlin

2.1 Scope of Sense and Avoid 35

2.2 System Configurations 36

2.3 S&A Services and Sub-functions 38

2.4 Sensor Capabilities 39

2.4.1 Airborne Sensing 39

2.4.2 Ground-Based Sensing 41

2.4.3 Sensor Parameters 41

2.5 Tracking and Trajectory Prediction 42

2.6 Threat Declaration and Resolution Decisions 43

2.6.1 Collision Avoidance 43

2.6.2 Self-separation 45

2.6.3 Human Decision versus Algorithm 45

2.7 Sense and Avoid Timeline 46

2.8 Safety Assessment 48

2.9 Modeling and Simulation 49

2.10 Human Factors 50

2.11 Standards Process 51

2.11.1 Description 51

2.11.2 Operational and Functional Requirements 52

2.11.3 Architecture 52

2.11.4 Safety, Performance, and Interoperability Assessments 52

2.11.5 Performance Requirements 52

2.11.6 Validation 53

2.12 Conclusion 54

References 54

3 Integration of SAA Capabilities into a UAS Distributed

Architecture for Civil Applications 55

Pablo Royo, Eduard Santamaria, Juan Manuel Lema, Enric Pastor and Cristina Barrado

3.1 Introduction 55

3.2 System Overview 57

3.2.1 Distributed System Architecture 58

3.3 USAL Concept and Structure 59

3.4 Flight and Mission Services 61

3.4.1 Air Segment 61

3.4.2 Ground Segment 65

3.5 Awareness Category at USAL Architecture 68

3.5.1 Preflight Operational Procedures: Flight Dispatcher 70

3.5.2 USAL SAA on Airfield Operations 72

3.5.3 Awareness Category during UAS Mission 75

3.6 Conclusions 82

Acknowledgments 82

References 82

Part II Regulatory Issues and Human Factors

4 Regulations and Requirements 87

Xavier Prats, Jorge Ramirez, Luis Delgado and Pablo Royo

4.1 Background Information 88

4.1.1 Flight Rules 90

4.1.2 Airspace Classes 91

4.1.3 Types of UAS and their Missions 93

4.1.4 Safety Levels 96

4.2 Existing Regulations and Standards 97

4.2.1 Current Certification Mechanisms for UAS 99

4.2.2 Standardization Bodies and Safety Agencies 102

4.3 Sense and Avoid Requirements 103

4.3.1 General Sense Requirements 103

4.3.2 General Avoidance Requirements 106

4.3.3 Possible SAA Requirements as a Function of the Airspace Class 108

4.3.4 Possible SAA Requirements as a Function of the Flight Altitude

and Visibility Conditions 109

4.3.5 Possible SAA Requirements as a Function of the Type of Communications Relay 110

4.3.6 Possible SAA Requirements as a Function of the Automation Level of the UAS 111

4.4 Human Factors and Situational Awareness Considerations 112

4.5 Conclusions 113

Acknowledgments 114

References 115

5 Human Factors in UAV 119

Marie Cahillane, Chris Baber and Caroline Morin

5.1 Introduction 119

5.2 Teleoperation of UAVs 122

5.3 Control of Multiple Unmanned Vehicles 123

5.4 Task-Switching 124

5.5 Multimodal Interaction with Unmanned Vehicles 127

5.6 Adaptive Automation 128

5.7 Automation and Multitasking 129

5.8 Individual Differences 131

5.8.1 Attentional Control and Automation 131

5.8.2 Spatial Ability 134

5.8.3 Sense of Direction 135

5.8.4 Video Games Experience 135

5.9 Conclusions 136

References 137

Part III SAA Methodologies

6 Sense and Avoid Concepts: Vehicle-Based SAA Systems (Vehicle-to-Vehicle) 145

Stepan Kopriva, David  Sislak and Michal Pechoucek

6.1 Introduction 145

6.2 Conflict Detection and Resolution Principles 146

6.2.1 Sensing 146

6.2.2 Trajectory Prediction 147

6.2.3 Conflict Detection 148

6.2.4 Conflict Resolution 149

6.2.5 Evasion Maneuvers 150

6.3 Categorization of Conflict Detection and Resolution Approaches 150

6.3.1 Taxonomy 150

6.3.2 Rule-Based Methods 151

6.3.3 Game Theory Methods 152

6.3.4 Field Methods 153

6.3.5 Geometric Methods 154

6.3.6 Numerical Optimization Approaches 156

6.3.7 Combined Methods 158

6.3.8 Multi-agent Methods 160

6.3.9 Other Methods 163

Acknowledgments 166

References 166

7 UAS Conflict Detection and Resolution Using Differential Geometry Concepts 175

Hyo-Sang Shin, Antonios Tsourdos and Brian White

7.1 Introduction 175

7.2 Differential Geometry Kinematics 177

7.3 Conflict Detection 178

7.3.1 Collision Kinematics 178

7.3.2 Collision Detection 180

7.4 Conflict Resolution: Approach I 182

7.4.1 Collision Kinematics 183

7.4.2 Resolution Guidance 186

7.4.3 Analysis and Extension 188

7.5 Conflict Resolution: Approach II 191

7.5.1 Resolution Kinematics and Analysis 192

7.5.2 Resolution Guidance 193

7.6 CD&R Simulation 195

7.6.1 Simulation Results: Approach I 195

7.6.2 Simulation Results: Approach II 199

7.7 Conclusions 200

References 203

8 Aircraft Separation Management Using Common Information Network SAA 205

Richard Baumeister and Graham Spence

8.1 Introduction 205

8.2 CIN Sense and Avoid Requirements 208

8.3 Automated Separation Management on a CIN 212

8.3.1 Elements of Automated Aircraft Separation 212

8.3.2 Grid-Based Separation Automation 214

8.3.3 Genetic-Based Separation Automation 214

8.3.4 Emerging Systems-Based Separation Automation 216

8.4 Smart Skies Implementation 217

8.4.1 Smart Skies Background 217

8.4.2 Flight Test Assets 217

8.4.3 Communication Architecture 219

8.4.4 Messaging System 221

8.4.5 Automated Separation Implementation 223

8.4.6 Smart Skies Implementation Summary 223

8.5 Example SAA on a CIN – Flight Test Results 224

8.6 Summary and Future Developments 229

Acknowledgments 231

References 231

Part IV SAA Applications

9 AgentFly: Scalable, High-Fidelity Framework for Simulation, Planning and Collision Avoidance of Multiple UAVs 235

David  Sislak, Premysl Volf, Stepan Kopriva and Michal Pechoucek

9.1 Agent-Based Architecture 236

9.1.1 UAV Agents 237

9.1.2 Environment Simulation Agents 237

9.1.3 Visio Agents 238

9.2 Airplane Control Concept 238

9.3 Flight Trajectory Planner 241

9.4 Collision Avoidance 245

9.4.1 Multi-layer Collision Avoidance Architecture 246

9.4.2 Cooperative Collision Avoidance 247

9.4.3 Non-cooperative Collision Avoidance 250

9.5 Team Coordination 252

9.6 Scalable Simulation 256

9.7 Deployment to Fixed-Wing UAV 260

Acknowledgments 263

References 263

10 See and Avoid Using Onboard Computer Vision 265

John Lai, Jason J. Ford, Luis Mejias, Peter O’Shea and Rod Walker

10.1 Introduction 265

10.1.1 Background 265

10.1.2 Outline of the SAA Problem 265

10.2 State-of-the-Art 266

10.3 Visual-EO Airborne Collision Detection 268

10.3.1 Image Capture 268

10.3.2 Camera Model 269

10.4 Image Stabilization 269

10.4.1 Image Jitter 269

10.4.2 Jitter Compensation Techniques 270

10.5 Detection and Tracking 272

10.5.1 Two-Stage Detection Approach 272

10.5.2 Target Tracking 278

10.6 Target Dynamics and Avoidance Control 278

10.6.1 Estimation of Target Bearing 278

10.6.2 Bearing-Based Avoidance Control 279

10.7 Hardware Technology and Platform Integration 281

10.7.1 Target/Intruder Platforms 281

10.7.2 Camera Platforms 282

10.7.3 Sensor Pod 286

10.7.4 Real-Time Image Processing 288

10.8 Flight Testing 289

10.8.1 Test Phase Results 290

10.9 Future Work 290

10.10 Conclusions 291

Acknowledgements 291

References 291

11 The Use of Low-Cost Mobile Radar Systems for Small UAS Sense and Avoid 295

Michael Wilson

11.1 Introduction 295

11.2 The UAS Operating Environment 297

11.2.1 Why Use a UAS? 297

11.2.2 Airspace and Radio Carriage 297

11.2.3 See-and-Avoid 297

11.2.4 Midair Collisions 298

11.2.5 Summary 299

11.3 Sense and Avoid and Collision Avoidance 300

11.3.1 A Layered Approach to Avoiding Collisions 300

11.3.2 SAA Technologies 300

11.3.3 The UA Operating Volume 303

11.3.4 Situation Awareness 304

11.3.5 Summary 304

11.4 Case Study: The Smart Skies Project 305

11.4.1 Introduction 305

11.4.2 Smart Skies Architecture 305

11.4.3 The Mobile Aircraft Tracking System 307

11.4.4 The Airborne Systems Laboratory 310

11.4.5 The Flamingo UAS 311

11.4.6 Automated Dynamic Airspace Controller 311

11.4.7 Summary 312

11.5 Case Study: Flight Test Results 312

11.5.1 Radar Characterisation Experiments 312

11.5.2 Sense and Avoid Experiments 319

11.5.3 Automated Sense and Avoid 324

11.5.4 Dynamic Sense and Avoid Experiments 326

11.5.5 Tracking a Variety of Aircraft 326

11.5.6 Weather Monitoring 331

11.5.7 The Future 332

11.6 Conclusion 333

Acknowledgements 333

References 334

Epilogue 337

Index 339

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“This book is a good introductory book for anyone interested in unmanned aerial systems and presents in a very comprehensive manner the challenges associated with the basic task of sense and avoid.”  (The Aeronautical Journal, 1 January 2014)

 

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