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E-book

Luminescent Materials and Applications

Adrian Kitai (Editor)
ISBN: 978-0-470-98567-0
292 pages
April 2008
Luminescent Materials and Applications (0470985674) cover image
Luminescence, for example, as fluorescence, bioluminescence, and phosphorescence, can result from chemical changes, electrical energy, subatomic motions, reactions in crystals, or stimulation of an atomic system. This subject continues to have a major technological role for humankind in the form of applications such as organic and inorganic light emitters for flat panel and flexible displays such as plasma displays, LCD displays, and OLED displays.

Luminescent Materials and Applications describes a wide range of materials and applications that are of current interest including organic light emitting materials and devices, inorganic light emitting diode materials and devices, down-conversion materials, nanomaterials, and powder and thin-film electroluminescent phosphor materials and devices. In addition, both the physics and the materials aspects of the field of solid-state luminescence are presented. Thus, the book may be used as a reference to gain an understanding of various types and mechanisms of luminescence and of the implementation of luminescence into practical devices.

The book is aimed at postgraduate students (physicists, electrical engineers, chemical engineers, materials scientists, and engineers) and researchers in industry, for example, at lighting and display companies and academia involved in studying conduction in solids and electronic materials. It will also provide an excellent starting point for all scientists interested in luminescent materials. Finally it is hoped that this book will not only educate, but also stimulate further progress in this rapidly evolving field.
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Series Preface.

Preface.

1 Principles of Luminescence (Adrian H. Kitai).

1.1 Introduction.

1.2 Radiation Theory.

1.3 Simple Harmonic Radiator.

1.4 Quantum Description.

1.5 Selection Rules.

1.6 Einstein Coefficients.

1.7 Harmonic Perturbation.

1.8 Blackbody Radiation.

1.9 Dipole–Dipole Energy Transfer.

1.10 Energy Levels in Atoms.

1.11 Crystal Field Splitting.

Acknowledgement.

References.

2 Phosphor Quantum Dots (Debasis Bera, Lei Qian and Paul H. Holloway).

2.1 Introduction.

2.2 Nanostructured Materials.

2.3 Quantum Dots.

2.4 Relaxation Processes of Excitons.

2.5 Blinking Effect.

2.6 Surface Passivation.

2.7 Synthesis Processes.

2.8 Optical Properties and Applications.

2.9 Perspective.

Acknowledgement.

References.

3 Color Conversion Phosphors for LEDS (Jack Silver and Robert Withnall).

3.1 Introduction.

3.2 Disadvantages of using LEDs without Color Conversion Phosphors.

3.3 Phosphors for Converting the Color of Light Emitted by LEDs.

3.4 Survey of the Synthesis and Properties of some Currently Available Color Conversion Phosphors.

3.5 Multi-Phosphor pcLEDs.

3.6 Quantum Dots.

3.7 Conclusions.

Acknowledgements.

References.

4 Development of White OLED Technology for Application in Full-Color Displays and Solid-State Lighting (T. K. Hatwar and Jeff Spindler).

4.1 Introduction.

4.2 Generation of White Light.

4.3 White OLEDs for Display Applications.

4.4 White OLED Tandem Architecture.

4.5 White OLEDs Based on Triplets.

4.6 White OLEDs Based on Conjugated Polymers.

4.7 White OLEDs for Solid-State Lighting.

4.8 Advanced Manufacturing of Large-Area Coatings.

4.9 Future Outlook.

Acknowledgements.

References.

5 Polymer Light-Emitting Electrochemical Cells (Jun Gao).

5.1 Introduction.

5.2 LEC Operating Mechanism and Device Characteristics.

5.3 LEC Materials.

5.4 Frozen-Junction LECs.

5.5 Planar LECs.

5.6 Conclusions and Outlook.

References.

6 LED Materials and Devices (Tsunemasa Taguchi).

6.1 Introduction.

6.2 LED Structures and Effi ciencies.

6.3 Typical LEDs and Features.

6.4 Generation of White Light.

6.5 Devices and Applications.

6.6 Future Prospects.

6.7 Conclusions.

References.

7 Thin Film Electroluminescence (Adrian H. Kitai).

7.1 Introduction.

7.2 Background of EL.

7.2.4 Sphere-supported thin film EL.

7.3 Theory of Operation.

7.4 Electroluminescent Phosphors.

7.5 Device Structures.

7.6 EL Phosphor Thin Film Growth.

7.7 Full-Color Electroluminescence.

7.8 Conclusions.

References.

8 AC Powder Electroluminescence (Feng Chen and Yingwei Xiang).

8.1 Background.

8.2 Structure and Materials of AC Powder EL Devices.

6 LED Materials and Devices (Tsunemasa Taguchi).

6.1 Introduction.

6.2 LED Structures and Effi ciencies.

6.3 Typical LEDs and Features.

6.4 Generation of White Light.

6.5 Devices and Applications.

6.6 Future Prospects.

6.7 Conclusions.

References.

7 Thin Film Electroluminescence (Adrian H. Kitai).

7.1 Introduction.

7.2 Background of EL.

7.3 Theory of Operation.

7.4 Electroluminescent Phosphors.

7.5 Device Structures.

7.6 EL Phosphor Thin Film Growth.

7.7 Full-Color Electroluminescence.

7.8 Conclusions.

References.

8 AC Powder Electroluminescence (Feng Chen and Yingwei Xiang).

8.1 Background.

8.2 Structure and Materials of AC Powder EL Devices.

8.3 The Mechanism of Light Emission for AC ZnS-Powder-EL Device.

8.4 EL Characteristics of AC Powder EL Materials.

8.5 Preparation of Powder EL materials.

8.6 Limitations of AC Powder EL Devices.

8.7 Applications of ACPEL.

References.

Index.

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Adrian Kitai is Professor in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering / Engineering Physics at McMaster University (Canada). He was educated at McMaster University and received his PhD in Electrical Engineering from Cornell University (USA). His research interests include fundamental luminescent materials, new luminescent devices, new avalanche injection devices and optical fiber liquid crystal display technology. Professor Kitai is a world leader in electroluminescent (EL) science and technology. With over 20 years of experience in the field, he holds several patents relating to EL technology and he has been the Chapter President of the Society for Information Display in Canada. Many of the leading EL researchers in Canada, have been taught and trained by Professor Kitai.
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