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Electrical Power System Essentials

ISBN: 978-0-470-98768-1
340 pages
April 2008
Electrical Power System Essentials (0470987685) cover image
Much of the basic hardware that generates, transmits and distributes electricity has changed little over the past century. However, the techniques applied in the power system have advanced, leading to greater transformer efficiency and more economic transmission and distribution. As the demand for electricity in both the developed and developing world increases, governments and electricity providers continue to look for alternative means of creating energy through renewable sources. Today’s needs also include well-designed systems that are capable of producing large quantities of electricity in the safest, most cost-effective way for the benefit of both individuals and industry.

This book provides an accessible introduction to the interesting world of alternating current (AC) power systems, focusing on the system as a whole. After laying out the basics for a steady-state analysis of three-phase power systems, the book examines:

  • the generation, transmission, distribution, and utilization of electric energy;
  • the principles of thermal, nuclear and renewable energy plants;
  • power system control and operation;
  • the organization of electricity markets, the changes currently taking place, and the developments that could lead to alternative power systems in the future.

Inside, you will find appendices that support the key text, supplying information on the modeling of power system components and including basic equations derived from Maxwell’s laws. Numerous practical examples, case studies and illustrations, demonstrate the theory, techniques and results presented in the text, and an accompanying solutions manual with problems and worked through answers is available on a supplementary website.

With its pragmatic approach, Power System Essentials is ideal for senior undergraduate students in electrical engineering who require an up-to-date overview of the subject. This book also acts as a concise reference, suitable for postgraduates and professionals from a range of disciplines who would like to work in this field. 

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Preface.

1. Introduction to Power System Analysis.

1.1 Introduction.

1.2 Scope of the Material.

1.3 General Characteristics of Power Systems.

1.4 Phasors.

1.5 Equivalent Line-To-Neutral Diagrams.

1.6 Power in Single-phase Circuits.

1.7 Power in Three-phase Circuits.

1.8 Per Unit Normalization.

1.9 Power System Structure.

2. The Generation of Electric Energy.

2.1 Introduction.

2.2 Thermal Power Plants.

2.3 Nuclear Power Plants.

2.4 Renewable Energy.

2.5 The Synchronous Machine.

3. The Transmission of Electric Energy.

3.1 Introduction.

3.2 Transmission and Distribution Network.

3.3 Network Structures.

3.4 Substations.

3.5 Substation Concepts.

3.6 Protection of Transmission And Distribution Networks.

3.7 Transformers.

3.8 Power Carriers.

4. The Utilization of Electric Energy.

4.1 Introduction.

4.2 Types of Load.

4.3 Classification of Grid Users.

5. Power System Control.

5.1 Introduction.

5.2 Basics of Power System Control.

5.3 Active Power and Frequency Control.

5.4 Voltage Control and Reactive Power.

5.5 Control of Transported Power.

5.6 Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS).

6. Energy Management Systems.

6.1 Introduction.

6.2 Loadflow or Power Flow Computation.

6.3 Optimal Powerflow.

6.4 State Estimator.

7. Electricity Markets.

7.1 Introduction.

7.2 Electricity Market Structure.

7.3 Market Clearing.

7.4 Social Welfare.

7.5 Market Coupling.

8. Future Power Systems.

8.1 Introduction.

8.2 Renewable Energy.

8.3 Decentralized Or Distributed Generation.

8.4 Power-electronic Interfaces.

8.5 Energy Storage.

8.6 Blackouts and Chaotic Phenomena.

Appendices.

A. Maxwell's Laws.

A.1 Introduction.

A.2 Power Series Approach To Time-varying Fields.

A.3 Quasi-Static Field Of A Parallel-plate Capacitor.

A.4 Quasi-Static Field Of A Single-turn Inductor.

A.5 Quasi-Static Field Of A Resistor.

A.6 Circuit Modeling.

B. Power Transformer Model.

B.1 Introduction.

B.2 The Ideal Transformer.

B.3 Magnetically-Coupled Coils.

B.4 The Non-ideal Transformer.

B.5 Three-phase Transformer.

C. Synchronous Machine Model.

C.1 Introduction.

C.2 The Primitive Synchronous Machine.

C.3 The Single-phase Synchronous Machine.

C.4 The Three-phase Synchronous Machine.

C.5 Synchronous Generator In The Power System.

D Induction Machine Model.

D.1 Introduction.

D.2 The Basic Principle of The Induction Machine.

D.3 The Magnetic Field In The Air-Gap.

D.4 A Simple Circuit Model For The Induction Machine.

D.5 Induction Motor In The Power System.

E. The Representation of Lines And Cables.

E.1 Introduction.

E.2 The Long Transmission Line.

E.3 The Medium-length Transmission Line.

E.4 The Short Transmission Line.

E.5 Comparison of The Three Line Models.

E.6 The Underground Cable.

References.

List of Abbreviations.

List of Symbols.

Index.

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P. H. Schavemaker, Electrical Power Systems, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Computer Science, Delft University of Technology, P.O. Box 5031, 2600 GA Delft, The Netherlands

Pieter H. Schavemaker is currently an Assistant Professor in the Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Computer Science at Delft University of Technology. He has been with the Power Systems Laboratory since 1996, and obtained his PhD in Electrical Engineering in 2002. He teaches courses on power systems analysis to undergraduate electrical engineering students, and has a number of years’ experience teaching students and giving courses to people in industry. He has also worked in industry with ABB (The Netherlands) in the field of substation control systems, and he is now working on research projects for Tennet, the Dutch technical standards organization. In 2004 he won the Prize Paper Award (along with L. van der Sluis) from the Power Engineering Education Committee of the IEEE Power Engineering Society, and his research interests include power system transients and power system calculations.

Lou van der Sluis, Electrical Power Systems, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Computer Science, Delft University of Technology, P.O. Box 5031, 2600 GA Delft, The Netherlands

Lou van der Sluis is currently a Professor in the Power Systems Department at the Delft University of Technology. Along with Professor Schavemaker, he teaches power systems analysis to undergraduate students, and also tutors practitioners working in the power systems industry. He has authored the book Transients in Power Systems which was published by Wiley in 2001, and won the Prize Paper Award (with P. Schavemaker) from the Power Engineering Education Committee of the IEEE Power Engineering Society. He is a senior member of IEEE and convener of CC-03 of Cigre. His research interests include analyzing the transient recovery voltages in medium and high voltage networks.

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  • Provides a broad introduction to alternating current (AC) power systems for undergraduate engineering students, and practitioners/post-graduates of all disciplines who are interested in working in the field.
  • Discusses the power system as a whole (how a system is built up, how it operates, how it is organized, how it relates to the power market), so differing from existing classical textbooks that focus on the mathematical modelling of component parts.
  • Includes numerous practical examples, case studies and illustrations in order to demonstrate the theory, techniques and results presented in the text.
  • Accompanying solutions manual with problems and worked through answers is available on a supplementary website.
  • Sets out information on basic equations derived by Maxwell’s laws, and lumped element models for power system components in the appendices.
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