Voltage References: From Diodes to Precision High-Order Bandgap Circuits
October 2001, Wiley-IEEE Press
Voltage References covers the conceptual history and scope of practical design issues behind marketable and precision integrated voltage references. Effectual for professionals and understandable to novice designers, this book provides a familiarity with simple rudimentary design as well as precision state-of-the-art ones. Also covered are the design implications on SOC solutions, and low-voltage, low-power, and noisy mixed-signal environments. Enhanced with design examples, this volume will increase the reader's understanding of analog integrated circuits and the issues involved in producing commercially marketable and reliable devices.
Primary topics include:
- The complete design of integrated voltage references
- Basics of voltage references, from diodes and current mirrors to temperature-dependent current references
- Design of zero-order, first-order, second-order, and higher-order reference circuits
- State-of-the-art curvature-correction techniques
- Practical design issues of integrated references, from error sources and circuit topologies to trimming circuits, package-shift effects, and characterization
Voltage References is an essential book for IC designers, product engineers, test engineers, researchers, and professors, as well as undergraduate and graduate students.
List of Tables.
List of Figures.
1. The Basics.
1.1 The Diode.
1.2 Current Mirrors.
Appendix A.1: Temperature Dependence of the Diode Voltage.
2. Current References.
2.1 PTAT Current References.
2.2 Startup Circuits and Frequency Compensation.
2.3 CTAT Current References.
2.4 Temperature-Independent Current References.
2.5 PTAT[superscript 2] Current Generators.
3. Voltage References.
3.1 Zero-Order References.
3.2 First-Order References.
3.3 Second-Order References (Curvature Correction).
3.4 State-of-the-Art Curvature-Correction Techniques.
4. Designing Precision Reference Circuits.
4.1 Error Sources.
4.2 The Output Stage.
4.3 Designing for Power Supply Rejection and Line Regulation.
Appendix A.4: Error Sources in a Typical First-Order Bandgap.
Appendix B.4: Effect of the Resistors' Temperature Coefficient on a Reference with a Current-Mode Output Stage.
5. Considering the System and the Working Environment.
5.1 Design of the Trim Network.
5.2 Package-Shift Effects.
5.3 System-Related Issues.
Appendix A.5: Bandgap Trimming Procedure for a Mixed-Mode (Both Voltage-Mode and Current-Mode) Output Stage.
Appendix B.5: Package Shift-Effects in Bandgap Reference Circuits.
Appendix C.5: Derivation of the Time Required for a Reference Circuit to Change a Finite Amount upon a single-Step Stimulus.
About the Author.