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Applied Electromagnetics and Electromagnetic Compatibility

ISBN: 978-0-471-16549-1
486 pages
November 2005
Applied Electromagnetics and Electromagnetic Compatibility (0471165492) cover image
Applied Electromagnetics and Electromagnetic Compatibility deals with Radio Frequency Interference (RFI), which is the reception of undesired radio signals originating from digital electronics and electronic equipment. With today's rapid development of radio communication, these undesired signals as well as signals due to natural phenomena such as lightning, sparking, and others are becoming increasingly important in the general area of Electro Magnetic Compatibility (EMC). EMC can be defined as the capability of some electronic equipment or system to be operated at desired levels of performance in a given electromagnetic environment without generating EM emissions unacceptable to other systems operating in the vicinity.
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Preface.

Acknowledgments.

1 General Considerations.

1.1 Introduction.

1.2 Definitions.

1.3 Interference mechanisms.

1.4 Examples.

1.5 Discussion.

References.

2 The Electromagnetic Environment.

2.1 Introduction.

2.2 Natural Noise.

2.3 Man-Made Noise.

2.4 CW and Transient Sources.

2.5 Characteristic Parameters of Authorized Radiators.

2.6 Noise Emission Intensity.

2.7 Home Environment.

2.8 Discussion of Noise Sources.

2.9 Subject Matter of the Book.

References.

3 Fundamentals of Fields and Waves.

3.1 Introduction.

3.2 Basic Parameters.

3.3 Time Dependent Relations.

3.3.1 Continuity of Current and Conservation of Charge.

3.3.2 Faraday's Law.

3.3.3 Ampere's Circuital Law.

3.3.4 Lorentz Force Law.

3.3.5 Maxwell's Equations.

3.3.6 Historical Commt:nts on Maxwell's Equations.

3.3.7 Media Considerations.

3.3.8 Boundary Conditions.

3.3.9 Energy Flow and Poynting's Theorem.

3.3.10 Uniqueness Theorem.

3.4 Harmonically Oscillating Fields.

3.4.1 Introduction.

3.4.2 Phasors.

3.4.3 Time Harmonic Relations.

3.4.4 Complex Permittivity.

3.4.5 Boundary Conditions Again.

3.4.6 Notes on the Solution.

3.4.7 The Complex Poynting Theorem.

3.5 The Wave Equation.

3.5.1 Time Dependent Case.

3.5.2 Time Hannonic Case.

3.6 Uniform Plane Waves.

3.6.1 General Considerations.

3.6.2 Energy Considerations.

3.6.3 Group Velocity.

3.6.4 Summary.

3.6.5 General Representation of TEM Waves.

3.6.6 Plane Waves in Lossy Media.

3.6.7 Skin Effect.

3.6.8 Polarization of Plane Waves.

3.7 Reflection and Refraction (Transmission) of Plane Waves.

3.7.1 Normal Incidence on a Plane Interface.

3.7.2 Oblique Incidence.

References.

Problems.

4 Signal Waveform and Spectral Analysis.

4.1 Introduction.

4.2 Classification of Signals.

4.3 Energy Signals.

4.3.1 Definitions.

4.3.2 A Rectangular Pulse.

4.4 Power Signals.

4.4.1 Periodic Signals.

4.4.2 Trapezoidal Waveform.

4.5 Examples of Some Signals.

References.

Problems.

5 Transmission Lines.

5.1 Introduction.

5.2 Basic Discussion.

5.3 Transverse Electromagnetic (TEM) Transmission Lines.

5.4 Telegrapher's Equations: Quasi-Lumped Circuit Model.

5.5 Wave Equations.

5.6 Frequency Domain Analysis.

5.6.1 General Solution.

5.6.2 Further Discussion of Propagation Constant and Characteristic Impedance.

5.6.3 Voltage, Current, and Impedance Relations.

5.7 Line Parameters.

5.7.1 Coaxial Line.

5.7.2 Parallel Wire Line.

5.7.3 Parallel Plate Line.

5.7.4 Circular Wire above a Ground Plane..

5.7.5 Microstrip Line.

5.7.6 Stripline.

5.7.7 Comments.

5.8 Transients on Transmission Lines.

5.8.1 Initial and Final (Steady State) Values.

5.8.2 Transient Values.

5.9 Measurements.

5.9.1 Slotted Line Measurements.

5.9.2 Network Analyzer Measurement.

References.

Problems.

6 Antennas and Radiation.

6.1 Introduction.

6.2 Potential Functions.

6.3 Radiation from a Short Current Element.

6.3.1 Complete Fields.

6.3.2 Near Zone and Far Zone Considerations.

6.3.3 Near Zone and Far Zone Fields.

6.3.4 Radiated Power and Radiation Pattern.

6.3.5 Wave Impedance.

6.4 Radiation from a Small Loop of Current.

6.4.1 Complete Fields.

6.4.2 Far Zone Fields.

6.4.3 Radiated Power.

6.4.4 Wave Impedance.

6.5 Fundamental Antenna Pal-ameters.

6.5.1 Radiation Intensity.

6.5.2 Directivity and Gain.

6.6 Far Fields of Arbitrary Current Distributions.

6.6.1 The Radiation Vector and the Far Fields.

6.6.2 Vector Effective Length of an Antenna.

6.6.3 Summary.

6.7 Linear Antennas.

6.7.1 Center-Fed Linear Antenna.

6.7.2 Far Fields of a Dipole of Length.

6.7.3 Radiated Power and Directivity.

6.7.4 Cosine, Sine, and Modified Cosine Integrals.

6.7.5 The Half-Wave Dipole.

6.8 Near Field and Far Field Regions.

6.8.1 Basic Assumptions.

6.8.2 Point or Small Sources.

6.8.3 Extended Sources.

6.8.4 Definitions of Various Regions.

6.8.5 Specific Values of the Region Boundaries.

6.9 Equivalent Circuits of Antennas.

6.9.1 Transmitting Antenna.

6.9.2 Receiving Antennas.

6.9.3 Equivalent Area.

6.10 Antenna Arrays.

6.10.1 General Considerations.

6.10.2 A Two-Element Array.

6.1 1 Antennas Above Ground.

6.1 1.1 Ground and Ground Plane.

6.1 1.2 Image Theory.

6.11.3 Images of Electric Current Elements above Perfect Ground.

6.1 1.4 Dipoles above Ground.

6.1 1.5 Monopole Antennas.

6.12 Biconical Antenna.

6.12.1 Biconical Transmission Line.

6.12.2 Finite Biconical Antenna.

References.

Problems.

7 Behavior of Circuit Components.

7.1 Introduction.

7.2 The Series RLC Circuit.

7.3 Definitions of Lumped Circuit Paranleters R, L, and C.

7.3.1 Circuit Theory Description.

7.3.2 Field Theory Description.

7.4 Round Wires.

7.4.1 Resistance.

7.4.2 Internal Inductance.

7.5 External Inductance of Round Wire Configurations.

7.5.1 General Relations.

7.5.2 Circular Loops.

7.6 Inductance of Straight Wires.

7.6.1 Partial Inductance.

7.6.2 Inductance of a Closed Rectangular Loop.

7.7 Other Configurations.

7.7.1 Printed Circuit Board (PCB) Lines.

7.7.2 Microstrip, Strip, and Coplanar Lines.

7.8 Behavior of Circuit Elements.

7.8.1 Bode Plots.

7.8.2 Resistors.

7.8.3 Capacitors.

7.8.4 Inductors.

References.

Problems.

8 Radiated Emissions and Susceptibility.

8.1 Introduction.

8.2 Main Requirements.

8.3 Emissions from Linear Elements.

8.4 Two Parallel Currents.

8.4.1 Introduction.

8.4.2 Two Parallel Currents.

8.5 Transmission Line Models for Susceptibility.

8.5.1 Introduction.

8.5.2 Voltage Induced on the Two-Wire Transmission Line .

References.

9 Electromagnetic Shielding.

9.1 Introduction.

9.2 Definitions.

9.3 Shielding Effectiveness.

9.3.1 Introduction.

9.3.2 SE Expressions for Computation.

9.4 Shielding Effectiveness: Near Field llluniination.

9.4.1 Electric and Magnetic Sources.

9.4.2 SE Expressions: Near Zone Considerations.

9.5 Discussion.

9.5.1 Far Zone Fields.

9.5.2 Near Zone Fields.

References.

10 Coupling between Devices.

10.1 Introduction.

10.2 Capacitive (Electric) Coupling.

10.3 Magnetic (Inductive) Coupling.

10.3.1 Some Basic Concepts.

10.3.2 Shielding of the Receptor Conductor

References.

11 Electrostatic Discharge (ESD).

1 1.1 Introduction.

11.2 Accumulation of Static Charge on Bodies.

1 1.3 Charging and Charge Separation.

1 1.4 Human Body as Source of ESD.

1 1.5 ESD Waveforms.

1 1.6 Human Body Circuit Model.

1 1.7 ESD Generator and ESD Test.

References.

12 EMC Standards.

12.1 Introduction.

12.2 Current US Standards.

12.2.1 Introduction.

12.2.2 FCC Radiated Emission Limits for Digital Devices.

12.2.3 FCC Conducted Emission Limits for Digital Devices.

12.3 EMIIEMC Standards: Non-US Countries.

12.3.1 CISPR Standards.

12.3.2 European Norms..

References.

13 Measurements of Emission.

13.1 Introduction.

13.2 General.

13.3 Radiated Emissions.

13.3.1 Introduction.

13.3.2 Receiver.

13.3.3 Antennas.

13.3.4 Some Results.

13.4 Conducted Emissions.

13.4.1 Introduction.

13.4.2 Noise on Power Supply Lines.

13.4.3 Transients on Power Supply Lines.

13.4.4 Conducted Emissions from a DUT.

13.4.5 Some Results.

References.

Appendix A: Vectors and Vector Analysis.

A. 1 Introduction.

A.2 Definitions of Scalar and Vector Fields.

A.2.1 Scalar Fields.

A.2.2 Vector Fields.

A.3 Vector Algebra.

A.3.1 Definitions.

A.3.2 Addition and Subtraction of Vectors.

A.3.3 Multiplication of a Vector by a Scalar Quantity.

A.3.4 Unit Vectors.

A.3.5 Vector Displacement and Components of a Vector.

A.4 Vector Surface Element.

A.5 Product of Vectors.

A.5.1 Dot Product of Two Vectors.

A.5.2 The Cross Product of Two Vectors.

A.5.3 Product of Three Vectors.

A.6 Coordinate Systems.

A.6.1 Three Basic Coordinate Systems.

A.6.2 Space Variables and Base Vectors.

A.7 Elementary Differential Relations.

A.7.1 Rectangular System.

A.7.2 Cylindrical and Spherical Systems.

A.8 Transformation of Unit Vectors.

A.9 Vector Calculus.

A.9.1 Time Derivative of Vector A.

A.9.2 Space Derivatives of a Vector A.

A.9.3 Gradient of a Scalar Function.

A.9.4 Flux of a Vector.

A.9.5 Divergence of a Vector A.

A.9.6 Curl of a Vector Function.

A. 10 The Laplacian V2 = V V.

A. 1 1 Comments on Notation.

A. 12 Some Useful Relations.

A.12.1 Vector Algebra.

A. 12.2 Vector Identities.

A. 12.3 Integral Relations.

References.

Problems.

Appendix B: Frequency Band Designations.

Appendix C: Constitutive Relations.

Index.

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DIPAK L. SENGUPTA, PhD, is Professor Emeritus and Research Scientist at the Radiation Laboratory, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. He is a Life Fellow of IEEE, and his professional interests are in the areas of antennas, electromagnetics, electromagnetic compatibility, and navigation systems.

VALDIS V. LIEPA, PhD, is a Research Scientist at the Radiation Laboratory, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, where he works on problems relating to applied electromagnetics and EMC compliance. Dr. Liepa is a Life Member of IEEE.

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