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Values-Based Safety Process: Improving Your Safety Culture With Behavior-Based Safety, 2nd Edition

ISBN: 978-0-471-22049-7
304 pages
June 2003
Values-Based Safety Process: Improving Your Safety Culture With Behavior-Based Safety, 2nd Edition (0471220493) cover image

Description

Behavior-Based Safety, based on the work of B.F. Skinner, includes identifying critical behaviors, observing actual behaviors and providing feedback that lead to changed and improve behavior. The Values-Based Safety Process: Improving Your Safety Culture with a Behavioral Approach, Second Edition provides a concise and practical guide for implementing a behavior-based safety system within any organization. 

Includes two new chapters on hot topics in behavioral safety, isolated workers, and the role of leadership in supporting behavorial safety.

  • Updated examples of the observation checklist.
  • New case studies covering large plants of 1,200 workers or more.
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Table of Contents

Foreword by E. Scott Geller xi

Preface xiii

Acknowledgments xv

CHAPTER 1 Safety Basics 1

1.1 Traditional Safety Programs 1

1.2 Du Pont’s Success 4

1.3 Our Findings 6

1.4 The Safety Triangle 8

1.5 Complacency 8

1.6 Safety as a Team Process 9

1.7 Common Problems with Safety Efforts 11

1.8 Problems with Punishment 13

1.9 Appropriate Use of Punishment 16

1.10 Components of a Proven Safety Process 17

CHAPTER 2 The Vision 19

2.1 A Typical Week 19

CHAPTER 3 Value-Based Behavioral Safety Process 21

3.1 A Question of Balance 21

3.2 Ensure a Clear Mission or Vision Statement 24

3.3 Types of Mission and Vision Statements 25

3.4 What Is a Value? 26

3.5 Why Clarify Values? 27

3.6 Use a Proven Process and Build on Basic Values 27

3.7 Concluding Remarks on Values 28

CHAPTER 4 Behavioral Safety Process 29

4.1 What’s in a Name? 30

4.2 Team-Based Process 30

4.3 Programs Versus Process 32

CHAPTER 5 Safety Assessment 33

5.1 What Is a Safety Assessment? 34

5.2 Why Conduct a Safety Assessment? 34

5.3 Who Should Conduct the Assessment? 35

5.4 Objectives of the Assessment 36

5.5 Outcome of the Assessment 39

5.6 Safety Assessment Process 40

How Do You Conduct a Safety Assessment? 40

Step 1: Review Safety Data 41

Step 2: Conduct Interviews 42

Step 3: Observe Safety Meetings, Safety Audits, and Safety 45

Step 4: Analyze Information and Develop and Improvement Plan 47

Step 5: Make the Final Report and Presentation 48

CHAPTER 6 Management Overview and Initial Workshops 51

6.1 What Is the Management Overview? 52

6.2 What Are the Objectives of the Management Overview? 52

6.3 What Is the Design Team Workshop? 53

6.4 What Are the Objectives of the Design Team Workshop? 53

6.5 What Is the Agenda? 53

CHAPTER 7 Final Design 55

7.1 What Are the Objectives of This Phase? 56

7.2 Design Team Process 57

7.3 Role of the Site Management Team 59

7.4 What Are the Steps in This Phase? 59

CHAPTER 8 Step 1: Establishing Mission, Values, and Milestone Targets 61

8.1 Clarifying Values: A Structured Approach 62

8.2 Step 1: Brainstorm Actions Likely to Impact the Process 63

8.3 Step 2: Pinpoint Those Practices 63

8.4 Step 3: Sort These Practices into ‘‘Value’’ Categories 63

8.5 Step 4: Use Values in Designing Your Safety Process 64

8.6 Step 5: Discuss Values During Kickoff Meetings and Training 65

8.7 Step 6: Use Values as Criteria for Evaluation 66

8.8 Establish a Milestone Schedule 66

CHAPTER 9 Step 2: Creating the Safety Observation Process 68

9.1 How Do You Create the Observation Process? 70

9.2 Analyze Past Incidents and Injuries 70

Practices in Work Areas 45

9.3 Develop a List of Critical Safe Practices 71

9.4 Draft and Revise Checklists 77

9.5 Develop the Observation Procedure 82

9.6 Feedback on Observations 88

9.7 Trial Run the Observation Checklist and Process 92

9.8 Conduct Management Review 93

CHAPTER 10 Step 3: Designing Feedback and Involvement Procedures 94

10.1 Develop Guidelines for Using Graphs 95

10.2 Plan Reviews of Safety Process Data 98

10.3 Develop Guidelines for Setting Improvement Goals 99

10.4 Establish Guidelines to Expand Involvement in Observations 100

10.5 Checklist for Planning Feedback and Involvement 101

CHAPTER 11 Step 4: Developing Recognition and Celebration Plans 102

11.1 Overview of Safety Awards and Incentives 104

11.2 Safety Recognition 104

11.3 Simple and Concurrent Safety Awards 106

11.4 Tiered Safety Awards 108

11.5 Support through Traditional Compensation 117

11.6 Safety Incentive Compensation 117

11.7 General Guidelines on Supporting Safety Motivation 119

CHAPTER 12 Step 5: Planning Training and Kickoff Meetings 120

12.1 Observer Training 121

12.2 Plan Kickoff Meeting(s) 122

12.3 Plan Training Needed to Support the Process 123

CHAPTER 13 Step 6: Conducting Management Review 125

CHAPTER 14 Implementing Behavioral Safety Process 128

14.1 Conduct Training for Steering Committees 129

14.2 Establish a Process Owner 130

14.3 Steering Committee’s Responsibilities 130

14.4 Management’s Responsibilities 134

CHAPTER 15 Maintaining the Behavioral Safety Process 135

15.1 Steering Committee Members’ Responsibilities 136

15.2 Common Situations 138

15.3 Steering Committee’s Responsibilities 138

15.4 Management’s Responsibilities 141

CHAPTER 16 Some Final Suggestions on Implementation 143

CHAPTER 17 Special Topics: Safety Leadership 145

17.1 Biggest Barrier to Effective Safety Leadership 145

17.2 Other Barriers to Effective Safety Leadership 146

17.3 Leadership’s Special Role 147

17.4 Phases of Management Support 148

17.5 Management’s Most Important Role 149

17.6 Positive Questions 150

17.7 Formal Monitoring and Management Action Items 151

17.8 Role of Managers and Supervisors in Observations 152

17.9 Importance of Informal Leaders 153

17.10 Other Leadership Responsibilities 154

17.11 Safety Leadership Checklist 154

17.12 Concluding Comments on Leadership’s Role 155

CHAPTER 18 Special Topics: Serious-Incident Prevention 157

18.1 Element 1: Build Management Commitment and Leadership 159

18.2 Element 2: Involve Employees 159

18.3 Element 3: Understand the Risks 160

18.4 Element 4: Identify Critical Work for Controlling the Risks 160

18.5 Element 5: Establish Performance Standards 160

18.6 Element 6: Maintain Measurement and Feedback Systems 161

18.7 Element 7: Reinforce and Implement Corrective Actions 161

18.8 Element 8: Improve and Update the Process 162

18.9 Implementation of the Serious-Incident Prevention Process: Pipeline Operations Case Study 162

CHAPTER 19 Special Topics: Self-Observation Process 169

19.1 What’s My Job? 170

19.2 How Am I Doing? 170

19.3 What’s In It for Me? 171

19.4 How to Implement a Self-Observation Process? 171

Select a Safety Representative from Each Work Group 171

Create an Index 172

Develop a Sampling Process 173

Post the Self-Observation Data 174

Provide Group and Individual Recognition 175

19.5 Final Suggestions on Self-Observations 177

CHAPTER 20 Special Topics: The Steering Committee 178

20.1 Creating the Steering Committee 178

20.2 Training the Steering Committee 179

20.3 Steering Committee Responsibilities 179

A. Managing Process Measures 179

B. Managing Behavioral Safety Measures 183

C. Managing Safety Results or Outcome Measures 183

20.4 Responsibility Summary 186

CHAPTER 21 Advanced Topics: Why It Works and Behavioral Basics 188

21.1 Pinpointing 188

21.2 ABC Analysis 190

21.3 Consequences 191

21.4 Antecedents 194

21.5 Individual Learning History 195

21.6 Behavioral Analysis Worksheet 196

21.7 Developing an Action Plan to Address Behavioral Causes 198

CHAPTER 22 Advanced Topics: Improvement Projects 199

22.1 Problem-Solving Steps 199

22.2 Methods of Gathering Additional Information 200

22.3 Identifying Weak or Missing Contingency Elements 202

22.4 Guidelines for Setting Goals 204

22.5 Guidelines for Recognition and Celebrations 205

CHAPTER 23 Other Support Programs 208

23.1 Additional Safety Process Components 208

23.2 Supplemental Safety Programs 208

23.3 Additional Safety Process Components 209

23.4 Common Support Programs 211

23.5 Coordinate Special Programs 214

CHAPTER 24 Long-Term Case Studies 216

24.1 Behavioral Safety in a Refinery 216

Phase 1: Pilot Area 216

Phase 2: Plantwide Implementation 218

24.2 Employee Safety Process at an Ore-Processing Facility 219

CHAPTER 25 Self-Observation Case Studies 223

25.1 Canadian Gas Production and Pipeline Company 223

25.2 Electric Utility 227

25.3 Logging Industry 229

CHAPTER 26 Small-Company Case Studies 234

26.1 Pipeline Company 234

26.2 Polyolefin Plant 235

26.3 Food-Processing Plant 237

CHAPTER 27 Observer Effect 240

CHAPTER 28 Original Case Studies 253

28.1 Employee Safety Process at a Gas Pipeline Company 254

28.2 Creating a Positive Safety Process 255

28.3 Lessons Learned in Enhancing Safety Performance in a Paper Mill 256

28.4 Behavioral Approach to Industrial Hygiene 259

28.5 Long-Term Effects of a Safety Reward Program in Open-Pit Mining 266

Appendix A: Sample Implementation Schedules 271

Appendix B: Selected Consultants Experienced in Implementing Behavioral Safety Processes 274

Appendix C: Unstructured Approach to Identifying and Defining Values 275

Clarifying your Values 275

Phase 1: Identify Your Basic Values 276

Phase 2: Pinpoint Practices That Exemplify Those Values 276

Phase 3: Provide Training on the New Values 277

Phase 4: Use the Values as Basic Ground Rules for Interactions 278

References 279

Index 283

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Author Information

TERRY E. McSWEEN, PhD, is President and CEO of Quality Safety Edge, a company that specializes in the application of behavioral technology to create employee-driven safety and quality improvement efforts. He is also an active member in several business and professional organizations, including the Board of Trustees for the Cambridge Center for Behavioral Studies, the Association for Behavior Analysis, the American Society for Safety Engineers, and the Texas Association for Behavior Analysis.
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Reviews

“...application of behavioral science to safety is stressed throughout the text....the overall value the book in promoting behavioral safety.” (Chemical Health & Safety, November/December 2003)
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