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Vacuum Microelectronics

Wei Zhu (Editor)
ISBN: 978-0-471-32244-3
416 pages
October 2001
Vacuum Microelectronics (047132244X) cover image


Expert coverage of vacuum microelectronics-principles, devices, and applications

The field of vacuum microelectronics has advanced so swiftly that commercial devices are being fabricated, and applications are being developed in displays, wireless communications, spacecraft, and electronics for use in harsh environments. It is a rapidly evolving, interdisciplinary field encompassing electrical engineering, materials science, vacuum engineering, and applied physics.

This book surveys the fundamentals, technology, and device applications of this nascent field. Editor Wei Zhu brings together some of the world's foremost experts to provide comprehensive and in-depth coverage of the entire spectrum of vacuum microelectronics. Topics include:

  • Field emission theory
  • Metal and silicon field emitter arrays
  • Novel cold cathode materials
  • Field emission flat panel displays
  • Cold cathode microwave devices

Vacuum Microelectronics is intended for practitioners in the display, microwave, telecommunications, and microelectronics industries and in government and university research laboratories, as well as for graduate students majoring in electrical engineering, materials science, and physics. It provides cutting-edge, expert coverage of the subject and serves as both an introductory text and a professional reference.

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Table of Contents

Preface ix

List of Contributors xiii

1. Historical Overview 1
Takao Utsumi

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Shoulders’ Proposal 1

1.3 Groundbreaking Work 2

1.4 Invention of Spindt Cathode 4

1.5 Field Emitter Arrays 5

1.6 New Cathode Materials 6

1.7 Future 7

Dedication 9

References 9

2 Technological Overview 13
Gregory P. Kochanski, Wei Zhu, and Yehuda Goren

2.1 Introduction 13

2.2 Promise and Reality 14

2.3 Case Studies 15

2.4 Outlook 30

References 31

3 Theory of Field Emission 33
Kevin L. Jensen

3.1 Introduction 33

3.2 One-Dimensional Tunneling Theory: Metals 35

3.3 Emission from Multi-Dimensional Structures 69

3.4 Conclusion 97

Acknowledgments 98

References 98

4 Spindt Field Emitter Arrays 105
Charles A. (Capp) Spindt, Ivor Brodie, Christopher E. Holland and Paul R. Schwoebel

4.1 Introduction 105

4.2 A Brief History of the Spindt Cathode 106

4.3 Fabrication Technology 108

4.4 Performance 141

4.5 Applications and Ongoing Developments 179

4.6 Summary 181

Acknowledgments 181

References 182

5 Silicon Field Emitter Arrays 187
Jonathan Shaw and Junji Itoh

5.1 Introduction 187

5.2 Fabrication of Silicon FEAs 190

5.3 Free Electron Theory of Field Emission 199

5.4 Emission Characterization of Silicon FEAs 205

5.5 Local Circuit Elements 224

5.6 Summary 241

Dedication 242

References 242

6 Novel Cold Cathode Materials 247
Wei Zhu, Peter K. Baumann, and Christopher A. Bower

6.1 Introduction 247

6.2 Diamond Emitters 248

6.3 Carbon Nanotube Emitters 265

6.4 Other Cold Cathodes 274

6.5 Conclusion 280

References 280

7 Field Emission Flat Panel Displays 289
Heinz H. Busta

7.1 Introduction 289

7.2 Field Emission Displays 290

7.3 Other Display Technologies 334

7.4 Summary 341

Institutions Involved inFEDCommercialization 342

Acknowledgments 343

References 343

8 Cold Cathode Microwave Devices 349
R. Allen Murphy and Mary Anne Kodis

8.1 Introduction 349

8.2 Microwave Amplifiers 350

8.3 Field Emitter Arrays 355

8.4 Characteristics of FEA-Cathode Microwave Tubes 381

8.5 Future Work 385

References 386

Index 393

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Author Information

WEI ZHU received his PhD in solid state science from Pennsylvania State University. He was a visiting assistant professor at North Carolina State University before he joined AT&T Bell Laboratories (later Lucent Technologies Bell Laboratories) in 1993. He is currently a member of technical staff in the Applied Materials Research Department at Agere Systems, formerly the microelectronics group of Lucent Technologies, where he specializes in carbon-based materials and applications. His interests include novel cold cathode materials and devices, nanoscale materials and technology, MEMS, and optical waveguide materials and devices. He holds more than thirty patents and has coauthored over forty papers. He organized the first Materials Research Society symposium on vacuum microelectronics in 1998. He is a member of the Materials Research Society and the Optical Society of America.
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