Print this page Share

Work Measurement and Methods Improvement

ISBN: 978-0-471-37089-5
464 pages
February 2000
Work Measurement and Methods Improvement (0471370894) cover image


Practical, up-to-date coverage for a new generation of engineering and management professionals.

Lawrence S. Aft s Productivity, Measurement, and Improvement has long served as a seminal reference for students and professionals in industrial engineering, quality management, and other related fields. Now Work Measurement and Methods Improvement brings his work right up to date with the demands of today s rapidly changing marketplace, where work measurement and methods improvement have a vital role to play in improving quality and enhancing productivity in a wide range of industries.

Accessible and easy to follow, this book presents solid, practical coverage of the key principles and practices of work measurement. It explains the purpose, use, advantages, and limitations of tools and methods for:
* Work analysis including graphical productivity analysis and work methods improvement
* Product measurement from time study and standard data systems to work sampling and labor reporting issues
* Product improvement ergonomics, incentive systems, continuous improvement, process improvement, and more

With straightforward examples, chapter-end summaries, review questions, and practice exercises that emphasize the application of fundamental concepts, Work Measurement and Methods Improvement is an essential reference for current and future professionals who must do the work and manage the process to achieve better quality, higher productivity, and powerhouse performance for their organization.
See More

Table of Contents

I Productivity – An Introduction 1

1 Introduction 3

Anecdotes 4

Analysis 8

Why is Productivity a Problem in the United States 10

Ways to Improve Productivity 12

A Role for Industrial Engineering 15

What about Japan 17

Where to From Here? 20

2 Methods Analysis 22

Objectives 22

Introduction 22

The Scientific Method 24

Summary 30

II work Analysis 31

3 Graphical Productivity Analysis 33

Objective 33

Introduction 33

Graphical Analysis Tools 34

Summary 85

Review Questions 86

Practice Exercises 86

4 Work Methods Improvement 105

Objectives 105

Introduction 105

Methods Improvement Defined 106

The Best Method 107

Therblig Analysis 109

Principles of Motion Economy 117

Man vs. Machine 125

Selling the Solution 132

Summary 138

Review Questions 141

Practice Exercise 141

III Measuring Productivity 145

5 Time Study 147

Objectives 147

Introduction 147

Purpose of Work Measurement Studies 148

Rating Job Performance 150

PFD Allowances 151

Calculating the Standard Time 152

Conducting a Time Study 153

Elemental Analysis 160

Determining Number of Cycles to Time 169

Potential Data Recording Difficulties 180

Data Analysis 183

Interpretation of Results 185

Special Cases 189

Summary 203

Review Questions 203

Practice Exercises 204

6 Standard Data Systems 209

Objectives 209

Introduction 209

The Purpose of Standard Data Systems 210

Constructing Standard Data Systems 211

Methodology for Developing Standard Data Systems 226

Advantages of Standard Data Systems 241

Limitations of Standard Data Systems 241

Summary 244

Appendix – Correlation and Regression Analysis 244

Review Questions 249

Practice Exercises 250

7 Predetermined Time Systems 253

Objectives 253

Introductions 253

The Purpose of Predetermined Time Standards 254

Use of Predetermined Time Systems 255

Application of a Hypothetical Predetermined Time System – AFTWAYS 256

Advantages of Predetermined Time Systems 278

Selecting a Predetermined Time System 278

Limitations of Predetermined Time Systems 279

Examples of Existing Predetermined Time Systems 279

Summary 298

Review Questions 298

Practice Exercise 298

8 Work Sampling 299

Objectives 299

Introduction 299

Definition of Work Sampling 300

Conducting a Study 305

Advantages of Work Sampling 319

Limitations of Work Sampling 320

Summary 322

Sample Size Determination 323

Review Questions 324

Practice Exercises 324

9 Physiological Work Measurement 330

Objectives 330

Introduction 330

Measuring Physiological Work 331

Uses of Physiological Work Measurements 335

Implications for Productivity 337

Summary 338

Review Questions 339

10 Labor Reporting 340

Introduction 340

Constructing a Labor Variance Report 341

Variation 343

Labor Efficiency 348

Using Labor Reporting and Work Sampling to Manage Staffing Levels 351

Conclusion 359

Practice Exercises 360

IV Improving Productivity 363

11 Introduction to Ergonomics 365

Objectives 365

Introduction 365

Approach to Human Factors Design 366

Work Design Considerations 373

Industrial Applications of Ergonomics 380

Summary 382

Partial Listing of Design Guidebooks 383

Review Questions 384

12 Incentives to Increase Productivity 385

Objectives 385

Introduction 385

Incentive System Design 388

Types of Incentive Plans 390

The Scanlon Plan 402

The Lincoln electric Plan 404

Summary 408

Review Questions 408

Practice Exercises 409

13 Alternative Methods for Increasing Productivity 412

Objectives 412

Introduction 412

Quality of Work Life 413

Quality Control Circles 419

Work Measurement and Continuous Improvement 429

Alternative Work Pattern – Flextime 433

Other Motivational Approaches to Productivity Improvement 434

Summary 437

Review Questions 438

Bibliography 439

Index 449

See More

Author Information

LAWRENCE S. AFT is Professor of Industrial Engineering Technology at Southern Polytechnic State University in Marietta, Georgia, and President of Aft Systems, Inc., a management consulting firm. His numerous books include Quality Improvement Using Statistical Process Control and Fundamentals of Industrial Quality Control, Third Edition.
See More
Back to Top