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Principles of Polymer Processing, 2nd Edition

ISBN: 978-0-471-38770-1
984 pages
June 2006, ©2006
Principles of Polymer Processing, 2nd Edition (0471387703) cover image
Thoroughly revised edition of the classic text on polymer processing


The Second Edition brings the classic text on polymer processing thoroughly up to date with the latest fundamental developments in polymer processing, while retaining the critically acclaimed approach of the First Edition. Readers are provided with the complete panorama of polymer processing, starting with fundamental concepts through the latest current industry practices and future directions. All the chapters have been revised and updated, and four new chapters have been added to introduce the latest developments.

Readers familiar with the First Edition will discover a host of new material, including:
* Blend and alloy microstructuring
* Twin screw-based melting and chaotic mixing mechanisms
* Reactive processing
* Devolatilization--theory, mechanisms, and industrial practice
* Compounding--theory and industrial practice
* The increasingly important role of computational fluid mechanics
* A systematic approach to machine configuration design

The Second Edition expands on the unique approach that distinguishes it from comparative texts. Rather than focus on specific processing methods, the authors assert that polymers have a similar experience in any processing machine and that these experiences can be described by a set of elementary processing steps that prepare the polymer for any of the shaping methods. On the other hand, the authors do emphasize the unique features of particular polymer processing methods and machines, including the particular elementary step and shaping mechanisms and geometrical solutions.

Replete with problem sets and a solutions manual for instructors, this textbook is recommended for undergraduate and graduate students in chemical engineering and polymer and materials engineering and science. It will also prove invaluable for industry professionals as a fundamental polymer processing analysis and synthesis reference.
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1 History Structural Formulation of the Field Through Elementary Steps and Future Perspectives 1

1.1 Historical Notes 1

1.2 Current Polymer Processing Practice 7

1.3 Analysis of Polymer Processing in Terms of Elementary Steps and Shaping Methods 14

1.4 Future Perspectives: From Polymer Processing to Macromolecular Engineering 18

2 The Balance Equations and Newtonian Fluid Dynamics 25

2.1 Introduction 25

2.2 The Balance Equations 26

2.3 Reynolds Transport Theorem 26

2.4 The Macroscopic Mass Balance and the Equation of Continuity 28

2.5 The Macroscopic Linear Momentum Balance and the Equation of Motion 32

2.6 The Stress Tensor 37

2.7 The Rate of Strain Tensor 40

2.8 Newtonian Fluids 43

2.9 The Macroscopic Energy Balance and the Bernoulli and Thermal Energy Equations 54

2.10 Mass Transport in Binary Mixtures and the Diffusion Equation 60

2.11 Mathematical Modeling Common Boundary Conditions Common Simplifying Assumptions and the Lubrication Approximation 60

3 Polymer Rheology and Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics 79

3.1 Rheological Behavior Rheometry and Rheological Material Functions of Polymer Melts 80

3.2 Experimental Determination of the Viscosity and Normal Stress Difference Coefficients 94

3.3 Polymer Melt Constitutive Equations Based on Continuum Mechanics 100

3.4 Polymer Melt Constitutive Equations Based on Molecular Theories 122

4 The Handling and Transporting of Polymer Particulate Solids 144

4.1 Some Unique Properties of Particulate Solids 145

4.2 Agglomeration 150

4.3 Pressure Distribution in Bins and Hoppers 150

4.4 Flow and Flow Instabilities in Hoppers 152

4.5 Compaction 154

4.6 Flow in Closed Conduits 157

4.7 Mechanical Displacement Flow 157

4.8 Steady Mechanical Displacement Flow Aided by Drag 159

4.9 Steady Drag-induced Flow in Straight Channels 162

4.10 The Discrete Element Method 165

5 Melting 178

5.1 Classification and Discussion of Melting Mechanisms 179

5.2 Geometry Boundary Conditions and Physical Properties in Melting 184

5.3 Conduction Melting without Melt Removal 186

5.4 Moving Heat Sources 193

5.5 Sintering 199

5.6 Conduction Melting with Forced Melt Removal 201

5.7 Drag-induced Melt Removal 202

5.8 Pressure-induced Melt Removal 216

5.9 Deformation Melting 219

6 Pressurization and Pumping 235

6.1 Classification of Pressurization Methods 236

6.2 Synthesis of Pumping Machines from Basic Principles 237

6.3 The Single Screw Extruder Pump 247

6.4 Knife and Roll Coating Calenders and Roll Mills 259

6.5 The Normal Stress Pump 272

6.6 The Co-rotating Disk Pump 278

6.7 Positive Displacement Pumps 285

6.8 Twin Screw Extruder Pumps 298

7 Mixing 322

7.1 Basic Concepts and Mixing Mechanisms 322

7.2 Mixing Equipment and Operations of Multicomponent and Multiphase Systems 354

7.3 Distribution Functions 357

7.4 Characterization of Mixtures 378

7.5 Computational Analysis 391

8 Devolatilization 409

8.1 Introduction 409

8.2 Devolatilization Equipment 411

8.3 Devolatilization Mechanisms 413

8.4 Thermodynamic Considerations of Devolatilization 416

8.5 Diffusivity of Low Molecular Weight Components in Molten Polymers 420

8.6 Boiling Phenomena: Nucleation 422

8.7 Boiling–Foaming Mechanisms of Polymeric Melts 424

8.8 Ultrasound-enhanced Devolatilization 427

8.9 Bubble Growth 428

8.10 Bubble Dynamics and Mass Transfer in Shear Flow 430

8.11 Scanning Electron Microscopy Studies of Polymer Melt Devolatilization 433

9 Single Rotor Machines 447

9.1 Modeling of Processing Machines Using Elementary Steps 447

9.2 The Single Screw Melt Extrusion Process 448

9.3 The Single Screw Plasticating Extrusion Process 473

9.4 The Co-rotating Disk Plasticating Processor 506

10 Twin Screw and Twin Rotor Processing Equipment 523

10.1 Types of Twin Screw and Twin Rotor–based Machines 525

10.2 Counterrotating Twin Screw and Twin Rotor Machines 533

10.3 Co-rotating Fully Intermeshing Twin Screw Extruders 572

11 Reactive Polymer Processing and Compounding 603

11.1 Classes of Polymer Chain Modification Reactions Carried out in Reactive Polymer Processing Equipment 604

11.2 Reactor Classification 611

11.3 Mixing Considerations in Multicomponent Miscible Reactive Polymer Processing Systems 623

11.4 Reactive Processing of Multicomponent Immiscible and Compatibilized Immiscible Polymer Systems 632

11.5 Polymer Compounding 635

12 Die Forming 677

12.1 Capillary Flow 680

12.2 Elastic Effects in Capillary Flows 689

12.3 Sheet Forming and Film Casting 705

12.4 Tube Blown Film and Parison Forming 720

12.5 Wire Coating 727

12.6 Profile Extrusion 731

13 Molding 753

13.1 Injection Molding 753

13.2 Reactive Injection Molding 798

13.3 Compression Molding 811

14 Stretch Shaping 824

14.1 Fiber Spinning 824

14.2 Film Blowing 836

14.3 Blow Molding 841

15 Calendering 865

15.1 The Calendering Process 865

15.2 Mathematical Modeling of Calendering 867

15.3 Analysis of Calendering Using FEM 873

Appendix A Rheological and Thermophysical Properties of Polymers 887

Appendix B Conversion Tables to the International System of Units (SI) 914

Appendix C Notation 918

Author Index 929

Subject Index 944

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ZEHEV TADMOR, DSc, is Distinguished Professor of Chemical Engineering and President Emeritus of Technion—Israel Institute of Technology. He is member of the Israeli Academy of Science and Humanities, a foreign member of the National Academy of Engineering (U.S.A.), and the Chairman of the Samuel Neaman Institute for Advanced Studies in Science and Technology, Technion.

COSTAS G. GOGOS, PhD, is Distinguished Research Professor in the Otto York Chemical Engineering Department, New Jersey Institute of Technology, and Chemical Engineering Professor Emeritus, Stevens Institute of Technology. He is also Chairman of the Board and President Emeritus of the Polymer Processing Institute.

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· Extensively revised - 1st revision in 27 years
· Covers new developments in the field, including blend and alloy microstucturing, twin screw-based processing equipment, reactive processing and compounding, foam extrusion, compounding, the role of chaotic flows in mixing, melting, devolatilization, computer simulation and on-line monitoring
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· Considers the complete picture of polymer processing, addressing fundamental concepts through current industrial practices
· Answers questions on "how" a particular machine works and "why" a particular design solution is best
· Introductory chapter highlights the technological aspects of the important polymer processing methods as well as the essential features of the subject
· Provides the reader with the tools necessary to conduct practical design of polymers
· End of chapter problems provide exercises for the material discussed in the text and demonstrate the applicability of the concepts presented in solving problems not discussed in the book
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"The long awaited new edition…provides an extensive discussion of all relevant topics…usable as a...course resource, 'Processing' is also of great value to practitioners." (CHOICE, January 2007)
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