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Principles of Polymer Processing, 2nd Edition

ISBN: 978-0-471-38770-1
984 pages
June 2006, ©2006
Principles of Polymer Processing, 2nd Edition (0471387703) cover image
Thoroughly revised edition of the classic text on polymer processing

The Second Edition brings the classic text on polymer processing thoroughly up to date with the latest fundamental developments in polymer processing, while retaining the critically acclaimed approach of the First Edition. Readers are provided with the complete panorama of polymer processing, starting with fundamental concepts through the latest current industry practices and future directions. All the chapters have been revised and updated, and four new chapters have been added to introduce the latest developments.

Readers familiar with the First Edition will discover a host of new material, including:
* Blend and alloy microstructuring
* Twin screw-based melting and chaotic mixing mechanisms
* Reactive processing
* Devolatilization--theory, mechanisms, and industrial practice
* Compounding--theory and industrial practice
* The increasingly important role of computational fluid mechanics
* A systematic approach to machine configuration design

The Second Edition expands on the unique approach that distinguishes it from comparative texts. Rather than focus on specific processing methods, the authors assert that polymers have a similar experience in any processing machine and that these experiences can be described by a set of elementary processing steps that prepare the polymer for any of the shaping methods. On the other hand, the authors do emphasize the unique features of particular polymer processing methods and machines, including the particular elementary step and shaping mechanisms and geometrical solutions.

Replete with problem sets and a solutions manual for instructors, this textbook is recommended for undergraduate and graduate students in chemical engineering and polymer and materials engineering and science. It will also prove invaluable for industry professionals as a fundamental polymer processing analysis and synthesis reference.
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1 History, Structural Formulation of the Field Through Elementary Steps, and Future Perspectives, 1

1.1 Historical Notes, 1

1.2 Current Polymer Processing Practice, 7

1.3 Analysis of Polymer Processing in Terms of Elementary Steps and Shaping Methods, 14

1.4 Future Perspectives: From Polymer Processing to Macromolecular Engineering, 18

2 The Balance Equations and Newtonian Fluid Dynamics, 25

2.1 Introduction, 25

2.2 The Balance Equations, 26

2.3 Reynolds Transport Theorem, 26

2.4 The Macroscopic Mass Balance and the Equation of Continuity, 28

2.5 The Macroscopic Linear Momentum Balance and the Equation of Motion, 32

2.6 The Stress Tensor, 37

2.7 The Rate of Strain Tensor, 40

2.8 Newtonian Fluids, 43

2.9 The Macroscopic Energy Balance and the Bernoulli and Thermal Energy Equations, 54

2.10 Mass Transport in Binary Mixtures and the Diffusion Equation, 60

2.11 Mathematical Modeling, Common Boundary Conditions, Common Simplifying Assumptions, and the Lubrication Approximation, 60

3 Polymer Rheology and Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics, 79

3.1 Rheological Behavior, Rheometry, and Rheological Material Functions of Polymer Melts, 80

3.2 Experimental Determination of the Viscosity and Normal Stress Difference Coefficients, 94

3.3 Polymer Melt Constitutive Equations Based on Continuum Mechanics, 100

3.4 Polymer Melt Constitutive Equations Based on Molecular Theories, 122

4 The Handling and Transporting of Polymer Particulate Solids, 144

4.1 Some Unique Properties of Particulate Solids, 145

4.2 Agglomeration, 150

4.3 Pressure Distribution in Bins and Hoppers, 150

4.4 Flow and Flow Instabilities in Hoppers, 152

4.5 Compaction, 154

4.6 Flow in Closed Conduits, 157

4.7 Mechanical Displacement Flow, 157

4.8 Steady Mechanical Displacement Flow Aided by Drag, 159

4.9 Steady Drag-induced Flow in Straight Channels, 162

4.10 The Discrete Element Method, 165

5 Melting, 178

5.1 Classification and Discussion of Melting Mechanisms, 179

5.2 Geometry, Boundary Conditions, and Physical Properties in Melting, 184

5.3 Conduction Melting without Melt Removal, 186

5.4 Moving Heat Sources, 193

5.5 Sintering, 199

5.6 Conduction Melting with Forced Melt Removal, 201

5.7 Drag-induced Melt Removal, 202

5.8 Pressure-induced Melt Removal, 216

5.9 Deformation Melting, 219

6 Pressurization and Pumping, 235

6.1 Classification of Pressurization Methods, 236

6.2 Synthesis of Pumping Machines from Basic Principles, 237

6.3 The Single Screw Extruder Pump, 247

6.4 Knife and Roll Coating, Calenders, and Roll Mills, 259

6.5 The Normal Stress Pump, 272

6.6 The Co-rotating Disk Pump, 278

6.7 Positive Displacement Pumps, 285

6.8 Twin Screw Extruder Pumps, 298

7 Mixing, 322

7.1 Basic Concepts and Mixing Mechanisms, 322

7.2 Mixing Equipment and Operations of Multicomponent and Multiphase Systems, 354

7.3 Distribution Functions, 357

7.4 Characterization of Mixtures, 378

7.5 Computational Analysis, 391

8 Devolatilization, 409

8.1 Introduction, 409

8.2 Devolatilization Equipment, 411

8.3 Devolatilization Mechanisms, 413

8.4 Thermodynamic Considerations of Devolatilization, 416

8.5 Diffusivity of Low Molecular Weight Components in Molten Polymers, 420

8.6 Boiling Phenomena: Nucleation, 422

8.7 Boiling–Foaming Mechanisms of Polymeric Melts, 424

8.8 Ultrasound-enhanced Devolatilization, 427

8.9 Bubble Growth, 428

8.10 Bubble Dynamics and Mass Transfer in Shear Flow, 430

8.11 Scanning Electron Microscopy Studies of Polymer Melt Devolatilization, 433

9 Single Rotor Machines, 447

9.1 Modeling of Processing Machines Using Elementary Steps, 447

9.2 The Single Screw Melt Extrusion Process, 448

9.3 The Single Screw Plasticating Extrusion Process, 473

9.4 The Co-rotating Disk Plasticating Processor, 506

10 Twin Screw and Twin Rotor Processing Equipment, 523

10.1 Types of Twin Screw and Twin Rotor–based Machines, 525

10.2 Counterrotating Twin Screw and Twin Rotor Machines, 533

10.3 Co-rotating, Fully Intermeshing Twin Screw Extruders, 572

11 Reactive Polymer Processing and Compounding, 603

11.1 Classes of Polymer Chain Modification Reactions, Carried out in Reactive Polymer Processing Equipment, 604

11.2 Reactor Classification, 611

11.3 Mixing Considerations in Multicomponent Miscible Reactive Polymer Processing Systems, 623

11.4 Reactive Processing of Multicomponent Immiscible and Compatibilized Immiscible Polymer Systems, 632

11.5 Polymer Compounding, 635

12 Die Forming, 677

12.1 Capillary Flow, 680

12.2 Elastic Effects in Capillary Flows, 689

12.3 Sheet Forming and Film Casting, 705

12.4 Tube, Blown Film, and Parison Forming, 720

12.5 Wire Coating, 727

12.6 Profile Extrusion, 731

13 Molding, 753

13.1 Injection Molding, 753

13.2 Reactive Injection Molding, 798

13.3 Compression Molding, 811

14 Stretch Shaping, 824

14.1 Fiber Spinning, 824

14.2 Film Blowing, 836

14.3 Blow Molding, 841

15 Calendering, 865

15.1 The Calendering Process, 865

15.2 Mathematical Modeling of Calendering, 867

15.3 Analysis of Calendering Using FEM, 873

Appendix A Rheological and Thermophysical Properties of Polymers, 887

Appendix B Conversion Tables to the International System of Units (SI), 914

Appendix C Notation, 918

Author Index, 929

Subject Index, 944

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ZEHEV TADMOR, DSc, is Distinguished Professor of Chemical Engineering and President Emeritus of Technion—Israel Institute of Technology. He is member of the Israeli Academy of Science and Humanities, a foreign member of the National Academy of Engineering (U.S.A.), and the Chairman of the Samuel Neaman Institute for Advanced Studies in Science and Technology, Technion.

COSTAS G. GOGOS, PhD, is Distinguished Research Professor in the Otto York Chemical Engineering Department, New Jersey Institute of Technology, and Chemical Engineering Professor Emeritus, Stevens Institute of Technology. He is also Chairman of the Board and President Emeritus of the Polymer Processing Institute.

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· Extensively revised - 1st revision in 27 years
· Covers new developments in the field, including blend and alloy microstucturing, twin screw-based processing equipment, reactive processing and compounding, foam extrusion, compounding, the role of chaotic flows in mixing, melting, devolatilization, computer simulation and on-line monitoring
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· Considers the complete picture of polymer processing, addressing fundamental concepts through current industrial practices
· Answers questions on "how" a particular machine works and "why" a particular design solution is best
· Introductory chapter highlights the technological aspects of the important polymer processing methods as well as the essential features of the subject
· Provides the reader with the tools necessary to conduct practical design of polymers
· End of chapter problems provide exercises for the material discussed in the text and demonstrate the applicability of the concepts presented in solving problems not discussed in the book
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"The long awaited new edition…provides an extensive discussion of all relevant topics…usable as a...course resource, 'Processing' is also of great value to practitioners." (CHOICE, January 2007)
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