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Wiley Survival Guide in Global Telecommunications: Signaling Principles, Protocols, and Wireless Systems

ISBN: 978-0-471-44608-8
408 pages
September 2004
Wiley Survival Guide in Global Telecommunications: Signaling Principles, Protocols, and Wireless Systems (0471446084) cover image
Wiley Survival Guide in Global Telecommunications: Signaling Principles, Protocols, and Wireless Systems provides a rapid introduction to the whole field of telecom technologies and will provide a consistent starting point for further study for the diverse set of interested populations, which the author differentiates into the following five categories: the rare telecom generalists, who can conceptually grasp the full picture; the greater number of individuals who are technical contributors, scientists, and engineers who concentrate on top-level applications; the majority of end users and consumers, professionals and private; the population of some underdeveloped countries who rarely or never use any of these technologies.

The book provides a comprehensive approach to telecom accessible to a broad audience. Each chapter concludes with a summary and exercises with solutions in some cases. Advanced equations requiring math background to appear only in the Appendix, and references are limited to books and review papers deemed accessible to the book’s intended broad audience.

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Forword, ix

Preface, xiii

Acronyms, xix

Introduction: The Network Cloud, 1

CHAPTER 1 Signal Modulation, Coding, Detection and Processing, 11

1.1 Waves and Analog Signals, 12

1.1.1 Sinusoids and Waveforms, 13

1.1.2 Analog Waveform Modulation, 16

1.1.3 Frequency-Division Multiplexing with Voice Channels, 19

1.2 Digital Signals and Coding, 22

1.2.1 Binary Number Representation, 23

1.2.2 Binary Coding into Waveforms, 26

1.2.3 Multilevel Coding and M-ary Modulation, 31

1.3 Analog-to-Digital Voice Conversion, 33

1.3.1 Pulse-Code Modulation, 33

1.3.2 Differential and Adaptative PCM, 36

1.3.3 Other Conversion Techniques, 38

1.4 Channel Noise, 39

1.4.1 Signal Mean and Variance, 39

1.4.2 The Gaussian or Normal Probability Distribution, 41

1.4.3 Eye Diagram of Binary Signals, 41

1.5 Binary Transmission and Detection, 44

1.5.1 Transmission System Elements, 44

1.5.2 Direct-Detection Binary Receivers, 48

1.5.3 Coherent Detection, 52

1.5.4 System Power Budget, 57

1.5.5 In-line Regeneration and Amplification, 57

1.5.6 Noise Figure of Active/Passive Transmission System Elements, 59

1.6 Error-Correction Coding, 62

1.6.1 Linear Block Codes, 63

1.6.2 Cyclic Codes, 68

1.6.3 Types of Error-Correcting Codes, 70

1.7 Channel Information Capacity, 72

1.7.1 Channel Information and Entropy, 73

1.7.2 Coding Efficiency, 75

1.7.3 Mutual Information, Equivocation and Channel Capacity, 76

1.7.4 Shannon–Hartley Law, 79

1.7.5 Bandwidth Efficiency, 82

Exercises, 85

My Vocabulary, 87

CHAPTER 2 Telephony and Data Networking, 91

2.1 Public Switched Telephone Networks (PSTN) and Services, 91

2.1.1 PSTN Topology, 92

2.1.2 Making a Phone Connection, 94

2.1.3 Interoffice Trunking and PSTN Environment, 95

2.1.4 Private Branch Exchanges (PBX) and Centrexes, 98

2.1.5 Integrated Services Digital Networks (ISDN), 98

2.2 Analog Frequency-Division Multiplexing, 101

2.2.1 FDM Hierarchy, 102

2.3 Plesiosynchronous Multiplexing, 103

2.3.1 T-Span Multiplexing and Framing, 104

2.3.2 Plesiosynchronous Digital Hierarchy, 105

2.4 Packet-Switched Networks, 109

2.4.1 The Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Model, 112

2.4.2 X.25 and Frame Relay, 115

2.5 Local Area Networks, 118

2.5.1 Network Topology and Connectivity, 119

2.5.2 Ethernet, 122

2.5.3 Token Bus and Token Ring, 123

2.5.4 Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI), 124

2.5.5 Switched Multimegabit Digital Service (SMDS), 128

Exercises, 130

My Vocabulary, 131

CHAPTER 3 An Overview of Core-Network Transmission Protocols, 133

3.1 Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) and Synchronous Optical Network (SONET) Protocols, 133

3.1.1 Limitations of Plesiosynchronous Digital Hierarchy, 134

3.1.2 SDH Framing Structure, 135

3.1.3 SONET Framing Structure, 139

3.1.4 STM-N and STS-N Framing, 142

3.1.5 SONET/SDH Network Services, 145

3.2 Asynchronous Transfer-Mode (ATM) Protocol, 147

3.2.1 ATM Cell Structure, 148

3.2.2 Virtual Channels and Virtual Paths, 150

3.2.3 ATM Protocol Reference Model (PRM), 152

3.2.4 Adaptation Layer (AAL) Service Types, 154

3.2.5 ATM Network Connection Types and Service Classes, 156

3.2.6 Mapping Protocols Over ATM and the Reverse, 158

3.3 Transmission Control (TCP) and Internet (IP) Protocols, 159

3.3.1 The TCP/IP Suite and Application Layers Stack, 160

3.3.2 The Internet and Internet Connectivities, 162

3.3.3 IP Addressing Format, 163

3.3.4 Datagram Routing, 166

3.3.5 TCP and IP Datagram/Packet Structures (IPv4/IPv6), 169

3.3.6 IP-Layer Functions, 180

3.3.7 Applications Service-Layer Functions, 182

3.3.8 E-mail Addressing, 185

3.3.9 Web-Site Addressing, 186

3.3.10 Mapping IP Over ATM, SDH/SONET, and WDM, 188

3.3.11 The Internet and www Jargon, 192

Exercises, 201

My Vocabulary, 201

CHAPTER 4 Wireless Communications, 205

4.1 Basic Physics of Radio-Wave Signals, 205

4.1.1 Generation of Electromagnetic Waves, 205

4.1.2 Radio Wavebands, 210

4.1.3 Types of Antenna, 213

4.1.4 Radio-Wave Propagation and Reception, 226

4.1.5 Multipath Interference, 235

4.1.6 Effective Noise Temperature, Noise Figure and CNR, 239

4.2 Mobile Radio Communications, 245

4.2.1 Cellular Telephone Networks, 247

4.2.2 Network Grade of Service, 250

4.2.3 Early 1G Mobile Systems and Frequency Allocations, 252

4.2.4 Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM), 256

4.2.5 From 2.5G Towards 3G Mobile Systems, 265

4.2.6 Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS), and cdma2000, 267

4.2.6 3G Services and Beyond 3G, 275

4.2.7 Wireless ATM (WATM) Networks, 277

4.3 Satellite-Based Communications, 281

4.3.1 Types of Satellite-Based Network Services, 281

4.3.2 Engineering Basics of Satellite Orbits, 283

4.3.3 Satellite Telecommunications, 306

4.3.4 High-Altitude Platform Systems (HAPS), 320

4.4 Fixed Wireless Networks, 326

4.4.1 Broadband Wireless Access (BWA), 327

4.4.2 Free-Space Optics (FSO), 332

4.4.3 Wireless LAN (WLAN) and Wi-Fi, 335

4.4.4 Personal-Area Networks (PAN): IrDA and Bluetooth, 340

4.4.5 Wireless Internet Access: WAP and i-Mode, 341

Exercises, 342

My Vocabulary, 345

Solutions to Exercises, 349

Bibliography, 383

Index, 387

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EMMANUEL DESURVIRE has been involved in optical telecommunications for nearly twenty years, starting with a PhD work on Raman fiber amplifiers at Thomson-CSF in 1983, followed by post-doctoral research at Stanford University. He then joined AT&T Bell Laboratories for five years, where he led the early investigation and development of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFA). For his pioneering contributions to EDFAs, he received several national and international awards including the 1994 Prize from the International Commission for Optics and the 1998 Benjamin Franklin Medal in engineering. After a two-year professorship at Columbia University, he joined Alcatel where he conducted research on long-haul soliton transmission and all-optical regeneration, then 40Gbit/s systems development. He also created and directed a corporate program to foster synergies between experts and promote innovation. An IEEE Fellow, he has authored or coauthored more than 200 technical publications, four books, and over thirty patents.
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