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Practical Handbook of Grouting: Soil, Rock, and Structures

ISBN: 978-0-471-46303-0
720 pages
April 2004
Practical Handbook of Grouting: Soil, Rock, and Structures (0471463035) cover image

Description

The first complete handbook for every aspect of grouting technology
The Practical Handbook of Grouting offers the most comprehensive, single-source reference covering all facets of grouting technology, including its application for control of water movement, strengthening of both soil and rock, and a wide range of structural applications. Richly illustrated with hundreds of informative photographs, graphs, and figures, this handbook provides invaluable advice on all stages of a project from initial investigation and design, through execution, monitoring, and quality control.
Broad coverage in the Practical Handbook of Grouting begins with a general overview of the topic and includes design and quality control issues, injection techniques, and a thorough discussion of drilling and grouting equipment, with practical focus on building custom equipment.
Enriched with real-world insights from the author, the Practical Handbook of Grouting features the latest information on:
* Cementitious and noncementitious grouts, including new admixtures and polymers
* Special construction requirements, including grouting inside structures, underground spaces, in extreme environments, and for emergency response support
* Grouting equipment, including pumps, mixers, agitators, and delivery and monitoring systems
* Pump mechanics, including the advantages and limitations of all pump types
* "The Games Contractors Play," including marketing efforts, proposal trickery, on-the-job issues, and defending bad work
Complete with an extensive bibliography and references, the Practical Handbook of Grouting is a valuable resource for civil, structural, and geotechnical engineers, geologists, contractors, and students in related fields.
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Table of Contents

Preface.

Acknowledgments.

Contributors Biographies.

PART I. THE PRESSURE GROUTING PROCESS.

Chapter 1. Introduction.

1.1 History Of Grouting.

1.2 Why Grout?

Chapter 2. Types of Grouting.

2.1 Permeation Grouting.

2.2 Compaction Grouting.

2.3 Fracture/Claquage Grouting.

2.4 Mixing/Jet Grouting.

2.5 Fill Grouting.

2.6 Vacuum Grouting.

Chapter 3. The Wide World of Grout Materials.

3.1 Cementitious Materials.

3.2 Admixtures for Cementitious Grouts.

3.3 Non Cementitious Grouts.

3.4 Material Selection.

3.5 Basic Material Properties.

Chapter 4. Grout Rheology.

4.1 Grout Consistency.

4.2 Material Behavior.

4.3 Other Rheological Properties.

Chapter 5. Cementitious Grout Materials.

5.1 Portland Cement.

5.3 Special Cements.

5.4 Supplementary Cementing Materials.

5.5 Blended Hydraulic Cements.

5.6 Ultrafine Cement.

5.7 Admixtures for Cementitious Grouts.

5.8 Fillers.

5.9 Blocking Agents.

Chapter 6. Cementitious Grout Mixtures.

6.1 Bleed Water.

6.2 Water to Cement Ratio.

6.3 Mix Design.

Chapter 7. Non-Cementitious Grouts.

7.1 Chemical Solution Grouts.

7.2 Chemical Solution Grouts for Strengthening.

7.3 Chemical Solution Grouts for Water Control.

7.4 Resinous Grouts.

7.5 Miscellaneous Grout Materials.

Chapter 8. Tests for Evaluation of Grouts and Grouted Masses.

8.1 Flow Cones.

8.2 Specific Gravity.

8.3 Evaluation of Bleed.

8.4 Pressure Filtration.

8.5 Slump.

8.6 Strength Tests.

Chapter 9. Injection Fundamentals.

9.1 Principals of Flow.

9.2 Effects of Grout Rheology.

9.3 Grout Penetration.

9.4 Injection Pressure.

9.5 Pumping Rate.

9.6 Pressure Behavior.

9.7 Vacuum.

Chapter 10. Grout Holes

10.1 Establishing the Holes.

10.2 Hole Drilling.

10.3 Hole Closure and Abandonment.

Chapter 11. Grouting in Soil.

11.1 Compaction Grouting.

11.2 Permeation Grouting in Soil.

11.3 Fracture (Claquage) Grouting.

11.4 Jet Grouting (Mixing).

Chapter 12. Grouting in Rock.

12.1 Know The Rock Properties.

12.2 Grouting For Water Control.

12.3 Grouting Rock For Strengthening.

12.4 Grout Holes.

12.5 The Grout Mix.

12.6 Injection Considerations.

Chapter 13. Grouting in Concrete and Masonry Structures.

13.1 Filling Structural Cavities and Joints.

13.2 Filling Cracks and Joints.

13.3 Contact Grouting.

13.4 Post-Tension Tendon Grouting.

13.5 Grouting Bedplates.

13.6 Abandoning Conduits and Tanks.

13.7 Filling Annular Space/Backfilling.

13.8 Filling Fabric Forms.

13.9 Preplaced Aggregate Concrete.

13.10 An Unusual Structural Application.

Chapter 14. Groutjacking.

14.1 Slabjacking.

14.2 Groutjacking Structures.

Chapter 15. Grouting in Pipes and Conduits.

15.1 Access Restrictions.

15.2 Safety Issues.

15.3 Small Inaccessable Conduits.

15.4 Worker Accessible Conduits.

Chapter 16. Grouting of Underground Structures.

16.1 Geotechnical and Structural Grouting.

16.2 Excavation Methods.

16.3 Lining Systems.

16.4 Conclusions.

Chapter 17. Leakage Control in Structures.

17.1 The Leakage Path.

17.2 Grout Holes/Injection Ports.

17.3 The Grout Material.

17.4 Grout Injection and Monitoring.

17.5 Some Examples of Use.

Chapter 18. Grouting in Extreme Environments.

18.1 Temperature Effects on Grout.

18.2 Extreme Chemical Exposures.

18.3 Provisions for Temperature Extremes.

Chapter 19. The Use of Explosives in Grouting.

19.1 Introduction.

19.2 Principals of Explosives Use.

19.3 Formation of Expanded Head Piles and Ground Anchors.

19.4 Clearing Obstructions to Grout Flow.

19.5 Accessing Subsurfac Fissures and Voids.

19.6 In-Place Perforation Of Injection Casing.

Chapter 20. Emergency Response Grouting.

20.1 Before Injection Starts.

20.2 Typical Emergency Situations.

PART II. GROUTING DESIGN AND CONTROL OF GROUTING.

Chapter 21. Understanding Geology.

21.1 Geologic Age

21.2 Types of Rock.

21.3 Geologic Structure.

21.4 The Rock Configuration/Geometry.

21.5 Stress State.

21.6 Derivation of Soil.

21.7 Classification of Soil.

Chapter 22. Investivations for Grouting.

22.1 Preliminary Considerations.

22.2 Soil Grouting.

22.3 Rock Grouting.

22.4 Grouting in Structures.

Chapter 23. Design of Grouting In Soil (Mike Byle).

23.1 Introduction.

23.2 Grout Functions in Soil.

23.3 Mass Improvement.

23.4 Modulus/Strength Improvement.

23.5 Permeability Reduction.

23.6 Structural Elements.

23.7 Karst Mitigation.

23.8 Design Summary.

Chapter 24. Design of Grouting in Rock.

24.1 The Existing Geology.

24.2 Strengthening Applications.

24.3 Seepage Control.

Chapter 25. Quality Control, Records, ad Verification.

25.1 Quality Control.

25.2 Injection Records.

25.3 Verification o Grouting Effectiveness.

Chapter 26. Numeric Analysis in Grouting (Mike Jefferies and Dawn Shuttle).

26.1 About Numerical Analysis.

26.2 Fractured Rock Grouting.

26.3 Compaction Grouting.

Chapter 27. Specifications and Contracts.

27.1 Specification Requirements.

27.2 Contracting Arrangements.

27.3 Full Scale Trials.

Chapter 28. The Games Contractors Play.

28.1 Marketing Efforts.

28.2 Proposal Trickery.

28.3 Once on the Job.

28.4 Defending Bad Work.

28.5 The Good Guys.

PART III. DRILLING AND GROUTING EQUIPMENT.

Chapter 29. Understanding Power Transmission.

29.1 Power Transmission Fundamentals.

29.2 Mechanical Systems.

29.3 Hydraulic Systems.

29.4 Pneumatic Systems.

Chapter 30. Drilling Equipment and Accessories.

30.1 Drill Rigs.

30.2   Drill Hole Casing.

30.3 Drill Rod.

30.4 Drill Bits.

30.5 Sleeve Port Pipes (Tube-A-Manchette).

30.6 Special Drive Needles.

30.7 Circulation (Mud) Pumps.

Chapter 31. Pump Mechanics.

31.1 Pumping Fundamentals.

31.2 Classification of Pumps.

31.3 Types of Pumps.

Chapter 32. Grout Pumps.

32.1 Power Source.

32.2 Types of Grout Pumps.

Chapter 33. Batchers, Mixers, and Agitators.

33.1 Small Mixers.

33.2 Mixing Equipment for Pourable Grouts.

33.3 Agitators.

33.4 Material Storage and Transfer Equipment.

33.5 Equipment for Low Mobility Grouts.

Chapter 34. Unitized Grout Plants.

34.1 Basic Considerations.

34.2 Plants for Pourable Cementitious Grouts.

34.3 Grout Plants for Low Movility Grouts.

34.4 Custom Built Grout Plants.

Chapter 35. Delivery Lines and Fittings.

35.1 Delivery Lines.

35.2 Valves.

Chapter 36. Gages, Gage Savers, and Flow Meters.

36.1 Pressure Gauges.

36.2 Gauge Savers.

36.3 Flow Meters.

36.4 Automated Monitoring Equipment.

Chapter 37. Packers.

37.1 Types of Packers.

37.2 Packer Deployment.

37.3 Double Packers.

Chapter 38. Some Concluding Thoughts.

Bibliography and References.

Index. 

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Author Information

JAMES WARNER, P.E., has specialized in the use of grouting for geotechnical applications and structural repair for more than fifty years as both a contractor and engineer.
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