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Conformal Array Antenna Theory and Design

ISBN: 978-0-471-46584-3
496 pages
February 2006, Wiley-IEEE Press
Conformal Array Antenna Theory and Design (0471465844) cover image


This is the first comprehensive treatment of conformal antenna arrays from an engineering perspective. While providing a thorough foundation in theory, the authors of this publication provide a wealth of hands-on instruction for practical analysis and design of conformal antenna arrays. Thus, you get the knowledge you need, alongside the practical know-how to design antennas that are integrated into  such structures aircrafts or skyscrapers.
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Table of Contents


Abbreviations and Acronyms.


1.1 The Definition of a Conformal Antenna.

1.2 Why Conformal Antennas?

1.3 History.

1.4 Metal Radomes.

1.5 Sonar Arrays.



2.1 Introduction.

2.2 Fundamentals.

2.2.1 Linear Arrays.

2.2.2 Circular Arrays.

2.3 Phase Mode Theory.

2.3.1 Introduction.

2.3.2 Discrete Elements.

2.3.3 Directional Elements.

2.4 The Ripple Problem in Omnidirectional Patterns.

2.4.1 Isotropic Radiators.

2.4.2 Higher-Order Phase Modes.

2.4.3 Directional Radiators.

2.5 Elevation Pattern.

2.6 Focused Beam Pattern.



3.1 Introduction.

3.2 360° Coverage.

3.2.1 360° Coverage Using Planar Surfaces.

3.2.2 360° Coverage Using a Curved Surface.

3.3 Hemispherical Coverage.

3.3.1 Introduction.

3.3.2 Hemispherical Coverage Using Planar Surfaces.

3.3.3 Half Sphere.

3.3.4 Cone.

3.3.5 Ellipsoid.

3.3.6 Paraboloid.

3.3.7 Comparing Shapes.

3.4 Multifaceted Surfaces.

3.5 References.


4.1 Introduction.

4.2 The Problem.

4.3 Electrically Small Surfaces.

4.3.1 Introduction.

4.3.2 Modal Solutions. Introduction. The Circular Cylinder. A Unit Cell Approach.

4.3.3 Integral Equations and the Method of Moments.

4.3.4 Finite Difference Time Domain Methods (FDTD). Introduction. Conformal or Contour-Patch (CP) FDTD. FDTD in Global Curvilinear Coordinates. FDTD in Cylindrical Coordinates.

4.3.5 Finite Element Method (FEM). Introduction. Hybrid FE-BI Method.

4.4 Electrically Large Surfaces.

4.4.1 Introduction.

4.4.2 High-Frequency Methods for PEC Surfaces.

4.4.3 High-Frequency Methods for Dielectric Coated Surfaces.

4.5 Two Examples.

4.5.1 Introduction.

4.5.2 The Aperture Antenna.

4.5.3 The Microstrip-Patch Antenna.

4.6 A Comparison of Analysis Methods.

Appendix 4A—Interpretation of the ray theory.

4A.1 Watson Transformation.

4A.2 Fock Substitution.

4A.3 SDP Integration.

4A.4 Surface Waves.

4A.5 Generalization.



5.1 Introduction.

5.1.1 Definition of a Surface and Related Parameters.

5.1.2 The Geodesic Equation.

5.1.3 Solving the Geodesic Equation and the Existence of Geodesics.

5.2 Singly Curved Surfaces.

5.3 Doubly Curved Surfaces.

5.3.1 Introduction.

5.3.2 The Cone.

5.3.3 Rotationally Symmetric Doubly Curved Surfaces.

5.3.4 Properties of Geodesics on Doubly Curved Surfaces.

5.3.5 Geodesic Splitting.

5.4 Arbitrarily Shaped Surfaces.

5.4.1 Hybrid surfaces.

5.4.2 Analytically Described Surfaces.



6.1 Introduction.

6.2 Aperture Antennas on Circular Cylinders.

6.2.1 Introduction.

6.2.2 Theory.

6.2.3 Mutual Coupling. Isolated Mutual Coupling. Cross Polarization Coupling. Array mutual coupling.

6.2.4 Radiation Characteristics. Isolated-Element Patterns. Embedded-Element Patterns.

6.3 Aperture Antennas on General Convex Cylinders.

6.3.1 Introduction.

6.3.2 Mutual Coupling. The Elliptic Cylinder. The Parabolic Cylinder. The Hyperbolic Cylinder.

6.3.3 Radiation Characteristics. The Elliptic Cylinder. End Effects.

6.4 Aperture Antennas on Faceted Cylinders.

6.4.1 Introduction.

6.4.2 Mutual Coupling.

6.4.3 Radiation Characteristics.

6.5 Aperture Antennas on Dielectric Coated Circular Cylinders.

6.5.1 Introduction.

6.5.2 Mutual Coupling. Isolated Mutual Coupling. Array Mutual Coupling.

6.5.3 Radiation Characteristics. Isolated-Element Patterns. Embedded-Element Patterns.

6.6 Microstrip-Patch Antennas on Coated Circular Cylinders.

6.6.1 Introduction.

6.6.2 Theory.

6.6.3 Mutual Coupling. Single-Element Characteristics. Isolated and Array Mutual Coupling.

6.6.4 Radiation Characteristics. Isolated-Element Patterns. Embedded-Element Patterns.

6.7 The Cone.

6.7.1 Introduction.

6.7.2 Mutual Coupling. Aperture Antennas. Microstrip-Patch Antennas.

6.7.3 Radiation Characteristics. Aperture Antennas 248 Microstrip-Patch Antennas.



7.1 Introduction.

7.2 Aperture Antennas.

7.2.1 Introduction.

7.2.2 Mutual Coupling. Isolated Mutual Coupling. Array Mutual Coupling.

7.2.3 Radiation Characteristics.

7.3 Microstrip-Patch Antennas.

7.3.1 Introduction.

7.3.2 Mutual Coupling. Single-Element Characteristics. Isolated Mutual Coupling.

7.3.3 Radiation Characteristics.



8.1 Introduction.

8.2 Mechanical Considerations.

8.2.1 Array Shapes.

8.2.2 Element Distribution on a Curved Surface.

8.2.3 Multifacet Solutions.

8.2.4 Tile Architecture.

8.2.5 Static and Dynamic Stress.

8.2.6 Other Electromagnetic Considerations.

8.3 Radiation Patterns.

8.3.1 Introduction.

8.3.2 Grating Lobes.

8.3.3 Scan-Invariant Pattern.

8.3.4 Phase-Scanned Pattern.

8.3.5 A Simple Aperture Model for Microstrip Arrays.

8.4 Array Impedance.

8.4.1 Introduction.

8.4.2 Phase-Mode Impedance.

8.5 Polarization.

8.5.1 Polarization Definitions.

8.5.2 Cylindrical Arrays. Dipole Elements. Aperture elements.

8.5.3 Polarization in Doubly Curved Arrays. A Paraboloidal Array.

8.5.4 Polarization Control.

8.6 Characteristics of Selected Conformal Arrays.

8.6.1 Nearly Planar Arrays.

8.6.2 Circular Arrays.

8.6.3 Cylindrical Arrays.

8.6.4 Conical Arrays.

8.6.5 Spherical Arrays.

8.6.6 Paraboloidal Arrays.

8.6.7 Ellipsoidal Arrays.

8.6.8 Other Shapes.



9.1 Introduction.

9.2 A Note on Orthogonal Beams.

9.3 Analog Feed Systems.

9.3.1 Vector Transfer Matrix Systems.

9.3.2 Switch Matrix Systems.

9.3.3 Butler Matrix Feed Systems.

9.3.4 RF Lens Feed Systems. The R-2R Lens Feed. The R-kR Lens Feed. Mode-Controlled Lenses. The Luneburg Lens. The Geodesic Lens. The Dome Antenna.

9.4 Digital Beam Forming.

9.5 Adaptive Beam Forming.

9.5.1 Introduction.

9.5.2 The Sample Matrix Inversion Method.

9.5.3 An Adaptive Beam Forming Simulation Using a Circular Array.

9.6 Remarks on Feed Systems.



10.1 Introduction.

10.2 Shape Optimization.

10.3 Fourier Methods for Circular Ring Arrays.

10.4 Dolph-Chebysjev Pattern Synthesis.

10.4.1 Isotropic Elements.

10.4.2 Directive Elements.

10.5 An Aperture Projection Method.

10.6 The Method of Alternating Projections.

10.7 Adaptive Array Methods.

10.8 Least-Mean-Squares Methods (LMS).

10.9 Polarimetric Pattern Synthesis.

10.10 Other Optimization Methods.

10.11 A Synthesis Example Including Mutual Coupling.

10.12 A Comparison of Synthesis Methods.



11.1 Introduction.

11.2 Definitions.

11.3 Radar Cross Section Analysis.

11.3.1 General.

11.3.2 Analysis Method for an Array on a Conducting Cylinder.

11.3.3 Analysis Method for an Array on a Conducting Cylinder with a Dielectric Coating.

11.4 Cylindrical Array.

11.4.1 Analysis and Experiment—Rectangular Grid.

11.4.2 Higher-Order Waveguide Modes.

11.4.3 Triangular Grid.

11.4.4 Conclusions from the PEC Conformal Array Analysis.

11.5 Cylindrical Array with Dielectric Coating.

11.5.1 Single Element with Dielectric Coating.

11.5.2 Array with Dielectric Coating.

11.6 Radiation and Scattering Trade-off.

11.6.1 Introduction.

11.6.2 Single-Element Results.

11.6.3 Array Results.

11.7 Discussion.


Subject Index.

About the Authors.

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Author Information

Lars Josefsson is a Fulbright scholar who has been with Ericsson Microwave Systems in Sweden since 1963 when he worked on ground scattering problems associated with radar design, infrared radiation and propagation, and airborne pulse doppler radar system analysis.  In 1968 he moved to the Antenna Department at Ericsson where he was involved with broadband polarizers and twist reflectors, stripline and waveguide slot arrays, and phased array antenna systems.  He is responsible for the introduction of new antenna technology and systems, internal R& D projects, and internal courses relating to antennas.  In 2001 he was appointed Senior Expert, Antenna Systems.
He has at the early project definition phase undertaken studies for many of the antenna systems that have later been put into production by Ericsson.  These studies include, for example, dual frequency Cassegrain antennas, Flat plate antennas, Phase steered AEW antennas, and 3D Radar antennas.  Dr. Josefsson has taken an active role in the AIMT project (Antenna Integrated Microwave Technology) sponsored by FMV, the Swedish Defense Material Administration.  His responsibilities have included the development of mutual coupling models for certain classes of array antennas.  He was technical leader for the initial development phase of Ericsson's AESA phased array radar antenna, aimed at next generation airborne radar applications. Currently he is involved in developing conformal antenna arrays.

Patrik Persson is a research scientist and instructor at the Royal Institute of Technology in Sweden. He is the 2002 recipient of the R.W.P. King Prize Paper Award by the IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society.  A frequent collaborator with Dr. Josefsson, he teaches courses on Antenna Theory at RIT and has been a visiting scholar at the ElectroScience Laboratory at Ohio State University.

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