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Arithmetic and Logic in Computer Systems

ISBN: 978-0-471-46945-2
246 pages
January 2004
Arithmetic and Logic in Computer Systems (0471469459) cover image
Arithmetic and Logic in Computer Systems provides a useful guide to a fundamental subject of computer science and engineering. Algorithms for performing operations like addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division in digital computer systems are presented, with the goal of explaining the concepts behind the algorithms, rather than addressing any direct applications. Alternative methods are examined, and explanations are supplied of the fundamental materials and reasoning behind theories and examples.
No other current books deal with this subject, and the author is a leading authority in the field of computer arithmetic. The text introduces the Conventional Radix Number System and the Signed-Digit Number System, as well as Residue Number System and Logarithmic Number System. This book serves as an essential, up-to-date guide for students of electrical engineering and computer and mathematical sciences, as well as practicing engineers and computer scientists involved in the design, application, and development of computer arithmetic units.
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List of Figures.

List of Tables.

About the Author.

1. Computer Number Systems.

1.1 Conventional Radix Number System.

1.2 Conversion of Radix Numbers.

1.3 Representation of Signed Numbers.

1.3.1 Sign-Magnitude.

1.3.2 Diminished Radix Complement.

1.3.3 Radix Complement.

1.4. Signed-Digit Number System.

1.5 Floating-Point Number Representation.

1.5.1 Normalization.

1.5.2 Bias.

1.6 Residue Number System.

1.7 Logarithmic Number System.



2. Addition and Subtraction.

2.1 Single-Bit Adders.

2.1.1 Logical Devices.

2.1.2 Single-Bit Half-Adder and Full-Adders.

2.2 Negation.

2.2.1 Negation in One's Complement System.

2.2.2 Negation in Two's Complement System.

2.3 Subtraction through Addition.

2.4 Overflow.

2.5 Ripple Carry Adders.

2.5.1 Two's Complement Addition.

2.5.2 One's Complement Addition.

2.5.3 Sign-Magnitude Addition.



3. High-Speed Adder.

3.1 Conditional-Sum Addition.

3.2 Carry-Completion Sensing Addition.

3.3 Carry-Lookahead Addition (CLA).

3.3.1 Carry-Lookahead Adder.

3.3.2 Block Carry Lookahead Adder.

3.4 Carry-Save Adders (CSA).

3.5 Bit-Partitioned Multiple Addition.



4. Sequential Multiplication.

4.1 Add-and-Shift Approach.

4.2 Indirect Multiplication Schemes.

4.2.1 Unsigned Number Multiplication.

4.2.2 Sign-Magnitude Number Multiplication.

4.2.3 One's Complement Number Multiplication.

4.2.4 Two's Complement Number Multiplication.

4.3 Robertson's Signed Number Multiplication.

4.4 Recoding Technique.

4.4.1 Non-overlapped Multiple Bit Scanning.

4.4.2 Overlapped Multiple Bit Scanning.

4.4.3 Booth's Algorithm.

4.4.4 Canonical Multiplier Recoding.



5. Parallel Multiplication.

5.1 Wallace Trees.

5.2 Unsigned Array Multiplier.

5.3 Two's Complement Array Multiplier.

5.3.1 Baugh-Wooley Two's Complement Multiplier.

5.3.2 Pezaris Two's Complement Multipliers.

5.4 Modular Structure of Large Multiplier.

5.4.1 Modular Structure.

5.4.2 Additive Multiply Modules.

5.4.3 Programmable Multiply Modules.



6. Sequential Division.

6.1 Subtract-and-Shift Approach.

6.2 Binary Restoring Division.

6.3 Binary Non-Restoring Division.

6.4 High-Radix Division.

6.4.1 High-Radix Non-Restoring Division.

6.4.2 SRT Division.

6.4.3 Modified SRT Division.

6.4.4 Robertson's High-Radix Division.

6.5 Convergence Division.

6.5.1 Convergence Division Methodologies.

6.5.2 Divider Implementing Convergence Division Algorithm.

6.6 Division by Divisor Reciprocation.



7. Fast Array Dividers.

7.1 Restoring Cellular Array Divider.

7.2 Non-Restoring Cellular Array Divider.

7.3 Carry-Lookahead Cellular Array Divider.



8. Floating Point Operations.

8.1 Floating Point Addition/Subtraction.

8.2 Floating Point Multiplication.

8.3 Floating Point Division.

8.4 Rounding.

8.5 Extra Bits.



9. Residue Number Operations.

9.1 RNS Addition, Subtraction and Multiplication.

9.2 Number Comparison and Overflow Detection.

9.2.1 Unsigned Number Comparison.

9.2.2 Overflow Detection.

9.2.3 Signed Numbers and Their Properties.

9.2.4 Multiplicative Inverse and the Parity Table.

9.3 Division Algorithm.

9.3.1 Unsigned Number Division.

9.3.2 Signed Number Division.

9.3.3 Multiplicative Division Algorithm.



10. Operations through Logarithms.

10.1 Multiplication and Addition in Logarithmic Systems.

10.2 Addition and Subtraction in Logarithmic Systems.

10.3 Realizing the Approximation.



11. Signed-Digit Number Operations.

11.1 Characteristics of SD Numbers.

11.2 Totally Parallel Addition/Subtraction.

11.3 Required and Allowed Values.

11.4 Multiplication and Division.




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Mi Lu received her MS and PhD in electrical engineering from Rice University, Houston. She joined the Department of Electrical Engineering at Texas A&M University in 1987 and is currently a professor. Her research interests include computer arithmetic, parallel computing, parallel computer architectures, VLSI algorithms, and computer networks. She has published over one hundred technical papers, and has served as associate editor of the Journal of Computing and Information and the Information Sciences Journal. She was conference chairperson of the Fifth, Sixth, and Seventh International Conferences on Computer Science and Informatics. She served on the panel of the National Science Foundation, the panel of the IEEE Workshop on Imprecise and Approximate Computation, and many conference program committees. She is the chairperson of sixty research advisory committees for masters and doctoral students. Dr. Lu is a registered professional engineer and a senior member of the IEEE. She has been recognized in Who’s Who in America.
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"...the perfect concise reference for computer arithmetic, and I highly recommended it to anyone involved in the study or implementation of such systems." (Computing, June 7, 2005)

"This comprehensive treatment of computer arithmetic is ideally suited for upper-level undergraduate or graduate students." (Computing, May 12, 2004)

"Lu has prepared one of the best books this reviewer has read….An Excellent book for graduate and senior undergraduate engineering and computer science students.” (Choice, July 2004)

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