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Introduction to Magnetic Materials, 2nd Edition

ISBN: 978-0-471-47741-9
568 pages
December 2008, Wiley-IEEE Press
Introduction to Magnetic Materials, 2nd Edition (0471477419) cover image
Introduction to Magnetic Materials, 2nd Edition covers the basics of magnetic quantities, magnetic devices, and materials used in practice. While retaining much of the original, this revision now covers SQUID and alternating gradient magnetometers, magnetic force microscope, Kerr effect, amorphous alloys, rare-earth magnets, SI Units alongside cgs units, and other up-to-date topics. In addition, the authors have added an entirely new chapter on information materials. The text presents materials at the practical rather than theoretical level, allowing for a physical, quantitative, measurement-based understanding of magnetism among readers, be they professional engineers or graduate-level students.
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Preface to the First Edition.

Preface to the Second Edition.

1. Definitions and Units.

1.1 Introduction.

1.2 The cgs-emu System of Units.

1.3 Magnetic Moment.

1.4 Intensity of Magnetization.

1.5 Magnetic Dipoles.

1.6 Magnetic Effects of Currents.

1.7 Magnetic Materials.

1.8 SI Units.

1.9 Magnetization Curves and Hysteresis Loops.

2. Experimental Methods.

2.1 Introduction.

2.2 Field Production By Solenoids.

2.3 Field Production by Electromagnets.

2.4 Field Production by Permanent Magnets.

2.5 Measurement of Field Strength.

2.6 Magnetic Measurements in Closed Circuits.

2.7 Demagnetizing Fields.

2.8 Magnetic Shielding.

2.9 Demagnetizing Factors.

2.10 Magnetic Measurements in Open Circuits.

2.11 Instruments for Measuring Magnetization.

2.12 Magnetic Circuits and Permeameters.

2.13 Susceptibility Measurements.

Problems.

3. Diamagnetism and Paramagnetism.

3.1 Introduction.

3.2 Magnetic Moments of Electrons.

3.3 Magnetic Moments of Atoms.

3.4 Theory of Diamagnetism.

3.5 Diagmagnetic Substances.

3.6 Classical Theory of Paramagnetism.

3.7 Quantum Theory of Paramagnetism.

3.8 Paramagnetic Substances.

Problems

4. Ferromagnetism.

4.1 Introduction.

4.2 Molecular Field Theory.

4.3 Exchange Forces.

4.4 Band Theory.

4.5 Ferromagnetic Alloys.

4.6 Thermal Effects.

4.7 Theories of Ferromagnetism.

4.8 Magnetic Analysis.

Problems.

5. Antiferromagnetism.

5.1 Introduction.

5.2 Molecular Field Theory.

5.3 Neutron Diffraction.

5.4 Rare Earths.

5.5 Antiferromagnetic Alloys.

Problems.

6. Ferrimagnetism.

6.1 Introduction.

6.2 Structure of Cubic Ferrites.

6.3 Saturation Magnetization.

6.4 Molecular Field Theory.

6.5 Hexagonal Ferrites.

6.6 Other Ferrimagnetic Substances.

6.7 Summary: Kinds of Magnetism.

Problems.

7. Magnetic Anisotropy.

7.1 Introduction.

7.2 Anisotropy in Cubic Crystals.

7.3 Anisotropy in Hexagonal Crystals.

7.4 Physical Origin of Crystal Anisotropy.

7.5 Anisotropy Measurement.

7.6 Anisotropy Measurement (from Magnetization Curves).

7.7 Anisotropy Constants.

7.8 Polycrystalline materials.

7.9 Anisotropy in Antiferromagnetics.

7.10 Shape Anisotropy.

7.11 Mixed Anisotrophies. 

Problems.

8. Magnetostriction and the Effects of Stress.

8.1 Introduction.

8.2 Magnetostriction of Single Crystals.

8.3 Magnetostriction of Polycrystals.

8.4 Physical Origin of Magnetostriction.

8.5 Effect of Stress on Magnetic Properties.

8.6 Effect of Stress on Magnetostriction.

8.7 Applications of Magnetostriction.

8.8 ΔE Effect.

8.9 Magnetoresistance.

Problems.

9. Domains and the Magnetization Process.

9.1 Introduction.

9.2 Domain Wall Structure.

9.3 Domain Wall Observation.

9.4 Magnetostatic Energy and Domain Structure.

9.5 Single-Domain Particles.

9.6 Micromagnetics.

9.7 Domain Wall Motion.

9.8 Hindrances to Wall Motion (Inclusions).

9.9 Residual Stress.

9.10 Hindrances to Wall Motion (Microstress).

9.11 Hindrances to Wall Motion (General).

9.12 Magnetization by Rotation.

9.13 Magnetization in Low Fields.

9.14 Magnetization in High Fields.

9.15 Shapes of Hysteresis Loops.

9.16 Effect of Plastic Deformation (Cold Work).

Problems.

10. Induced Magnetic Anisotropy.

10.1 Introduction.

10.2 Magnetic Annealing (Substitutional Solid Solutions).

10.3 Magnetic Annealing (Interstitial Solid Solutions).

10.4 Stress Annealing.

10.5 Plastic Deformation (Alloys).

10.6 Plastic Deformation (Pure Metals).

10.7 Magnetic Irradiation.

10.8 Summary of Anisotropies.

11. Fine Particles and Thin Films.

11.1 Introduction.

11.2 Single-Domain vs Multi-Domain Behavior.

11.3 Coercivity of Fine Particles.

11.4 Magnetization Reversal by Spin Rotation.

11.5 Magnetization Reversal by Wall Motion.

11.6 Superparamagnetism in Fine particles.

11.7 Superparamagnetism in Alloys.

11.8 Exchange Anisotropy.

11.9 Preparation and Structure of Thin Films.

11.10 Induced Anisotropy in Films.

11.11 Domain Walls in Films.

11.12 Domains in Films.

Problems.

12. Magnetization Dynamics.

12.1 Introduction.

12.2 Eddy Currents.

12.3 Domain Wall Velocity.

12.4 Switching in Thin Films.

12.5 Time Effects.

12.6 Magnetic Damping.

12.7 Magnetic Resonance.

Problems.

13. Soft Magnetic Materials.

13.1 Introduction.

13.2 Eddy Currents.

13.3 Losses in Electrical Machines.

13.4 Electrical Steel.

13.5 Special Alloys.

13.6 Soft Ferrites.

Problems.

14. Hard Magnetic Materials.

14.1 Introduction.

14.2 Operation of Permanent Magnets.

14.3 Magnet Steels.

14.4 Alnico.

14.5 Barium and Strontium Ferrite.

14.6 Rare Earth Magnets.

14.7 Exchange-Spring Magnets.

14.8 Nitride Magnets.

14.9 Ductile Permanent Magnets.

14.10 Artificial Single Domain Particle.

14.11 Bonded Magnets.

14.12 Magnet Stability.

14.13 Summary of Magnetically Hard Materials.

14.14 Applications.

Problems.

15. Magnetic Materials for Recording and Computers.

15.1 Introduction.

15.2 Magnetic Recording.

15.3 Principles of Magnetic Recording.

15.4 Magnetic Digital Recording.

15.5 Perpendicular Recording.

15.6 Possible Future Developments.

15.7 Magneto-Optic Recording.

15.8 Magnetic Memory.

16. Magnetic Properties of Superconductors.

16.1 Introduction.

16.2 Type I Superconductors.

16.3 Type II Superconductors.

16.4 Susceptibility Measurements.

16.5 Demagnetizing Effects.

Appendix 1. Dipole Fields and Energies.

Appendix 2. Data on Ferromagnetic Elements.

Appendix 3. Conversion of Units.

Appendix 4. Physical Constants.

Index.

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The Late B. D. Cullity was a group leader for the Manhattan Project in WWII, and then became professor of metallurgical engineering at Notre Dame University. He is best known for two widely used textbooks, Elements of X-Ray Diffraction and this book, Introduction to Magnetic Materials. His major research interests were in the use of x-ray diffraction to measure lattice strains and in magnetostrictive phenomena.

C. D. Graham worked at the General Electric Research Laboratory for fifteen years before moving in 1969 to the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at the University of Pennsylvania. He has published works on magnetic domain structure, anisotropy, thin films, permanent magnets, amorphous alloys, and magnetic measurements, plus several book chapters and three encyclopedia articles.

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The revision will focus largely on making the book current in regards to its applications, measurement techniques, and system of units. There is a new chapter on information materials: digital recording technology and materials, magnetic memory, etc.This revision includes coverage of SQUID and alternating gradient magnetometers, magnetic force microscope, Kerr effect, amorphous alloys, rare-earth magnets, SI Units alongside cgs units, and all other changes necessary to bring it up-to-date.
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Offers a phenomenological approach to magnetic materials with an emphasis on materials, experimental methods, and applications.
* Great appeal to those working in the real world with magnetic materials.
* New chapter on information materials: digital recording technology and materials, magnetic memory, etc.
* While retaining as much of the original presentation as possible, this revision includes coverage of SQUID and alternating gradient magnetometers, magnetic force microscope, Kerr effect, amorphous alloys, rare-earth magnets, SI Units alongside cgs units, and all other changes necessary to bring it up-to-date.
See More
"However, if you are a student learning about magnetism or are in industry or academia and need to learn about the fundamentals of magnetism, this is the book to own." (IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine, 1 July 2011)
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