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ESD in Silicon Integrated Circuits, 2nd Edition

ISBN: 978-0-471-49871-1
422 pages
May 2002
ESD in Silicon Integrated Circuits, 2nd Edition (0471498718) cover image
* Examines the various methods available for circuit protection, including coverage of the newly developed ESD circuit protection schemes for VLSI circuits.
* Provides guidance on the implementation of circuit protection measures.
* Includes new sections on ESD design rules, layout approaches, package effects, and circuit concepts.
* Reviews the new Charged Device Model (CDM) test method and evaluates design requirements necessary for circuit protection.
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Preface

1. Introduction

Background

The ESD Problem

Protecting against ESD

Outline of the Book

2. ESD Phenomenon

Introduction

Electrostatic Voltage

Discharge

ESD Stress Models

3. Test Methods

Introduction

Human Body Model (HBM)

Machine Model (MM)

Charged Device Model (CDM)

Socket Device Model (SDM)

Metrology, Calibration, Verification

Transmission Line Pulsing (TLP)

Failure Criteria

Summary

4 Physics and Operation of ESD Protection Circuits

Introduction

Resistors

Diodes

Transistor Operation

Transistor Operation Under ESD Conditions

Electrothermal Effects

SCR Operation

Conclusion

5 ESD Protection Design Concepts and Strategy

The Qualities of Good ESD Protection

ESD Protection Design Methods

Selecting an ESD Strategy

Summary

6 Design and Layout Requirements

Introduction

Thick Field Device

NMOS Transistors (FPDs)

Gate-Coupled NMOS (GCNMOS)

Gate Driven nMOS (GDNMOS)

SCR Protection Device

ESD Protection Design Synthesis

Total Input Protection

ESD Protection Using Diode-Based Devices

Power Supply Clamps

BiPolar and BiCMOS Protection Circuits

Summary

7 Advanced Protection Design

Introduction

PNP Driven NMOS (PDNMOS)

Substrate Triggered NMOS (STNMOS)

NMOS Triggered NMOS (NTNMOS)

ESD for Mixed Voltage I/O

CDM Protection

SOI Technology

High Voltage Transistors

BiCMOS Protection

RF Designs

General I/O Protection Schemes

Design/layout Errors

Summary

8 Failure Modes, Reliability Issues, and Case Studies

Introduction

Failure Mode Analysis

Reliability and Performance Considerations

Advanced CMOS Input Protection

Optimizing the Input Protection Scheme

Designs for Special Applications

Process Effects on Input Protection Design

Total IC Chip Protection

Power Bus Protection

Internal Chip ESD Damage

Stress Dependent ESD Behavior

Failure Mode Case Studies

Summary

9 Influence of Processing on ESD

Introduction

High Current Behavior

Cross-section of a MOS Transistor

Drain-Source Implant Effects

P-Well Effects

N-Well Effects

Epitaxial Layers and Substrates

Gate Oxides

Silicides

Contacts

Interconnect and Metallization

Gate Length Dependencies

Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI)

Bipolar Transistors

Diodes

Resistors

Reliability Trade-Offs

Summary

10 Device Modeling of High Current Effects

Introduction

The Physics of ESD Damage

Thermal ("Second") Breakdown

Analytical Models Using the Heat Equation

Electrothermal Device Simulations

Conclusions

Circuit Simulation Basics, Approaches, and Simulations

Introduction

Modeling the MOSFET

Modeling Bipolar Junction Transistors

Modeling Diffusion Resistors

Modeling Protection Diodes

Simulation of Protection Circuits

Electrothermal Circuit Simulations

Conclusion

12 Conclusions

Long-term Relevance of ESD in ICs

State-of-the-art for ESD Protection

Current Limitations

Future Issues
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