Optical Bit Error Rate: An Estimation Methodology
September 2004, Wiley-IEEE Press
The text lays out an easy-to-understand analytical approach to a highly important and complex subject: bit error rate (BER) estimation of a transmitted signal with a focus on optical transmission. It includes coverage of such important topics as impairments on DWDM optical signals, causes of signal distortion, and identification and estimation of the signal quality by statistical estimation of the bit error rate. The book includes numerous illustrations and examples to make a difficult topic easy to understand. This edition includes a CD-ROM with run-time simulations from a vendor that provides commercial software for the industry.
Constants, Conversions and Useful Formulae.
1 Principles of Modulation and Digital Transmission.
1.1 Digital Versus Analog.
1.2 Spectrum in Optical Communications.
1.3 Linear Response to Square Input Pulses.
1.4 Principles of Modulation.
1.5 Modulator Types.
1.6 Principles of Decoding.
2 Optical Propagation.
2.2 The Wave Nature of Light.
2.3 Classical Interference.
2.4 Quantum Interference.
2.5 Light Attributes.
2.7 Propagation of Light.
2.11 Material Dispersion.
2.12 Glass Fiber, an Optical Transmission Medium.
2.14 Fiber Polarization-Dependent Loss.
2.15 Self-Phase Modulation.
2.16 Self-Modulation or Modulation Instability.
2.17 Effect of Pulse Broadening on Bit Error Rate.
2.18 Four-Wave Mixing.
2.19 The Decibel Unit.
3 Optical Transmitters and Receivers.
3.2 The Transmitter.
3.3 The Receiver.
3.4 Detection Techniques.
4 Overview of DWDM Devices and Networks.
4.2 Review of DWDM Components.
4.3 Interaction of Multiple Channels in Fiber.
4.4 Review of DWDM Networks.
5 Noise Sources Affecting the Optical Signal.
5.2 Transmission Factors.
5.3 Thermal Noise.
5.4 Shot Noise.
5.5 Flicker or 1/f Noise.
5.6 Other Noise Sources.
5.7 Temporal Parameters.
5.8 Linear, Nonlinear, and Other Effects.
5.9 Photodetector Responsivity and Noise Contributors.
6 Timing, Jitter, and Wander.
6.1 The Primary Reference Source.
6.2 The Phase-Lock Loop.
6.3 Bit, Frame and Payload Synchronization.
6.4 Synchronization Impairments.
6.5 Network Hierarchy.
6.6 Theoretical Foundation of Timing Error.
6.7 Traffic Probability and Signal Quality.
6.8 Jitter and Wander.
7 Probability Theory of Bit Error Rate.
7.2 Bit Error Ratio and Bit Error Rate.
7.4 OSNR and Spectral Matching.
7.5 Carrier-to-Noise Ratio.
7.6 Shannon’s Limit.
7.7 Optical Signal-to-Noise Ratio.
7.8 Probability and Statistics 101.
7.9 Bit Error Probability.
7.10 Bit Error Contributors.
7.11 Bit Error Rate.
7.12 Optical Signal-to-Noise Ratio.
7.13 Channel Capacity and SNR.
7.14 The Quality or Q-Factor.
7.15 Bit Error Monitoring.
7.16 BER and Data Patterning.
7.17 BER and Eye Diagram.
7.18 Eye-Pattern Mask.
8 BER Statistical Measurements.
8.2 Sampling and Statistical Histograms.
8.3 Statistical Sampling for BER.
8.4 Estimating BER, Q-factor, and SNR.
8.5 The BER Circuit.
8.6 Performance of the BER Circuit.
8.7 Other Performance Metrics.
9 Error Detection and Correction Codes.
9.2 Code Interleaving.
9.3 Error Detection and Correction Strategies.
Appendix A: Statistical Noise in Communications.
Appendix B: Exercises and Simulation Examples Contained in the CD-ROM.