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Urban Transit: Operations, Planning and Economics

ISBN: 978-0-471-63265-8
664 pages
February 2005
Urban Transit: Operations, Planning and Economics (0471632651) cover image

Description

The only modern text to cover all aspects of urban transit operations, planning, and economics

Global in scope, up-to-date with current practice, and written by an internationally renowned expert, Urban Transit: Operations, Planning, and Economics is a unique volume covering the full range of issues involved in the operation, planning, and financing of transit systems.

Presenting both theoretical concepts and practical, real-world methodologies for operations, planning and analyses of transit systems, this book is a comprehensive single-volume text and reference for students as well as professionals.

The thorough examination of technical fundamentals and management principles in this book enables readers to address projects across the globe despite nuances in regulations and laws. Dozens of worked problems and end-of-chapter exercises help familiarize the reader with the formulae and analytical techniques presented in the book's three convenient sections:

  • Transit System Operations and Networks
  • Transit Agency Operations, Economics, and Organization
  • Transit System Planning

Visually enhanced with nearly 250 illustrations, Urban Transit: Operations, Planning, and Economics is a reliable source of the latest information for transit planners and operators in transit agencies, metropolitan planning organizations, city governments, consulting firms as well as students of transportation engineering and city planning at universities and in professional courses.

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Table of Contents

1 Preface xiii

Acknowledgments xv

PART I TRANSIT SYSTEMS OPERATIONS AND NETWORKS 1

TRANSIT OPERATIONS AND SERVICE SCHEDULING 3

1.1 Basic Operating Elements, 4

1.2 Information Files and Data Collection: Surveys and Counts, 22

1.3 Transit Travel Characteristics, 28

1.4 Scheduling of Service, 44

2 CAPACITY, SPEED, ACCELERATED AND SPECIAL OPERATIONS 78

2.1 Transit Line Capacity, 78

2.2 Increase of Transit Speed, 98

2.3 Stops and Stopping Regimes, 114

2.4 Accelerated Rail Transit Operations with Fixed Stopping Schedules, 118

2.5 Scheduling of Single-Track Lines, Circle Lines, and Trunk Lines with Branches, 140

3 MODELING AND OPTIMIZATION IN TRANSIT SYSTEMS ANALYSIS 158

3.1 Application of Systems Analysis in Transit, 159

3.2 Conceptual Models, 162

3.3 Mathematical Modeling Procedure and Applications, 166

3.4 Applications of Simulation Methodology, 178

3.5 Evaluation of Systems Analysis and Operations Research in Transit, 179

4 TRANSIT LINES AND NETWORKS 185

4.1 Planning Objectives, Principles, and Considerations, 186

4.2 Geometry of Transit Lines, 191

4.3 Types of Transit Lines and Their Characteristics, 201

4.4 Transfers in Transit Networks, 215

4.5 Timed Transfer System Networks, 224

4.6 Transit Network Types and Their Characteristics, 234

4.7 Analysis of Metro Network Geometric Forms, 248

5 PLANNING OF RAIL TRANSIT STATION LOCATIONS 268

5.1 Objectives in Station Location Planning, 268

5.2 Passenger Travel Time, 269

5.3 Other Objectives in Station Location Selection, 278

5.4 Integration of Objectives, 283

5.5 Addition or Closing of a Station, 285

5.6 Area Coverage versus Operating Speed, 285

5.7 Station Spacings on Actual Rail Transit Networks, 289

PART II TRANSIT AGENCY ECONOMICS AND ORGANIZATION

6 TRANSIT AGENCY OPERATIONS, ECONOMICS, AND MARKETING 299

6.1 Organizational Structure of Transit Agencies, 299

6.2 Management and Personnel, 303

6.3 Transit System Statistics, Performance, and Economic Measures, 308

6.4 Transit Agency Operations, 315

6.5 Transit System Full Accessibility, 340

6.6 Information System for Passengers, 350

6.7 Marketing and Public Relations, 360

7 TRANSIT FARES 374

7.1 Objectives in Transit Fare Determination, 374

7.2 Fare Collection, 376

7.3 Fare Structures, 384

7.4 Special Higher and Lower Fares, 389

7.5 Fare Level, 394

8 FINANCING OF TRANSIT 408

8.1 Principles and Trends in Financing Transit Services, 408

8.2 Sources of Local and State Funds for Transit, 413

8.3 Federal Funding of Transit, 419

8.4 Improving the Efficiency of Transit Agencies, 423

9 TRANSIT OWNERSHIP, REGULATION, AND ORGANIZATION 429

9.1 Private Transit Companies and Public Takeover, 429

9.2 Ownership and Forms of Transit Systems, 434

9.3 Integration of Transit Services Provided by Different Operators, 438

9.4 Regulation of Transit Services, 440

9.5 Unregulated Transit Services, 445

9.6 Evolving Forms of Transit Ownership,

PART III TRANSIT SYSTEMS PLANNING AND MODE SELECTION

10 TRANSIT SYSTEMS PLANNING 469

10.1 Purpose and Organization of Transit Planning, 469

10.2 Planning Procedure and Methodology, 479

10.3 Travel and Transit Demand Forecasting, 487

10.4 Transit Plan Development, Evaluation, and Selection, 500

10.5 Review of the Process and Trends in Transit Planning, 512

11 ANALYSIS, EVALUATION, AND SELECTION OF TRANSIT MODES 519

11.1 Evaluation and Selection of Public Projects, 519

11.2 Transit Mode Evaluations, 522

11.3 Definition of the Conditions Set, 528

11.4 Formulation, Comparison, and Selection of Candidate Modes, 544

12 PLANNING AND SELECTION OF MEDIUM- AND HIGH-PERFORMANCE TRANSIT MODES 553

12.1 Basic Elements of Transit Modes, 553

12.2 Medium-Performance Transit Modes, 568

12.3 High-Performance Transit Modes, 592

Appendix I SI and English Units and Conversion Factors, 615

Appendix II List of Abbreviations, 621

Appendix III Definitions of Transit Systems Terms, 623

Appendix IV Answers to Selected Exercise Questions, 633

Index 641

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Author Information

Vukan R. Vuchic, PhD, is UPS Foundation Professor of Transportation Engineering and Professor of City and Regional Planning at the University of Pennsylvania. He has consulted in many cities around the world, lectured at seventy universities, and authored more than 140 publications, including the books Urban Public Transportation Systems and Technology and Transportation for Livable Cities.
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The Wiley Advantage

  • Only modern text to present a comprehensive approach to all aspects of transit system operation and management
  • Dozens of worked problems help students to better understand the formulae and principles presented
  • End of chapter exercises provide a convenient way to review the concepts just presented
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Reviews

"In a unique approach, this comprehensive book provides an integration of theoretical concepts, analytical methods and practical solutions that transit operators and planners need." (Public Transport International, May 2005)

"…essential knowledge for someone planning a transport system." (Tramways & Urban Transit, September 2007)

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