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Urban Transit: Operations, Planning and Economics

ISBN: 978-0-471-63265-8
664 pages
February 2005
Urban Transit: Operations, Planning and Economics (0471632651) cover image
The only modern text to cover all aspects of urban transit operations, planning, and economics

Global in scope, up-to-date with current practice, and written by an internationally renowned expert, Urban Transit: Operations, Planning, and Economics is a unique volume covering the full range of issues involved in the operation, planning, and financing of transit systems.

Presenting both theoretical concepts and practical, real-world methodologies for operations, planning and analyses of transit systems, this book is a comprehensive single-volume text and reference for students as well as professionals.

The thorough examination of technical fundamentals and management principles in this book enables readers to address projects across the globe despite nuances in regulations and laws. Dozens of worked problems and end-of-chapter exercises help familiarize the reader with the formulae and analytical techniques presented in the book's three convenient sections:

  • Transit System Operations and Networks
  • Transit Agency Operations, Economics, and Organization
  • Transit System Planning

Visually enhanced with nearly 250 illustrations, Urban Transit: Operations, Planning, and Economics is a reliable source of the latest information for transit planners and operators in transit agencies, metropolitan planning organizations, city governments, consulting firms as well as students of transportation engineering and city planning at universities and in professional courses.

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Chapter 1. Transit Operations and Service Scheduling.

1.1 Basic operating elements.

1.1.1 Line, network, stop and station.

1.1.2 Vehicles, transit units and fleet size.

1.1.3 Usage of service: Passenger flow and volume.

1.1.4 Operating elements: Headway and frequency.

1.1.5 Capacity, work and utilization.

1.1.6 Travel times.

1.1.7 Speeds.

1.2 Information files and data collection: surveys and counts.

1.2.1 Organization of surveys.

1.2.2 Transit speed-and-delay survey.

1.2.3 Passenger volume and load count.

1.2.4 Passenger boarding and alighting counts.

1.2.5 Other types of surveys.

1.3 Transit travel characteristics.

1.3.1 Factors influencing transit travel.

1.3.2 Spatial distribution of transit travel.

1.3.3 Temporal variations of transit travel.

1.3.4 Passenger volume analysis and service capacity determination.

1.3.5 Characteristics of travel on a transit line.

1.3.6 Indicators of transit usage.

1.4 Scheduling of service.

1.4.1 Components of the scheduling process.

1.4.2 Determination of service requirements.

1.4.3 Scheduling procedure.

1.4.4 Procedure summary, examples and numerical schedules.

1.4.5 Graphical presentations of transit operations.

1.4.6 Crew scheduling or run-cutting.

1.4.7 Use of computers in scheduling.

1.4.8 Measures of operating efficiency.

Chapter 2. Capacity, Speed, Accelerated and Special Operations.

2.1 Transit line capacity.

2.1.1 Elements of line capacity.

2.1.2 Capacity computations.

2.1.3 Systems approach to transit line capacity.

2.1.4 Capacities of different modes.

2.2 Increase of transit speed.

2.2.1 Desirability of speed increase.

2.2.2 Possible measures for speed increase.

2.2.3 Sensitivity of transit speeds to elements of cycle time.

2.2.4 Evaluations of measures for speed increase.

2.3 Stops and stopping regimes.

2.3.1 Definitions and relationships.

2.3.2 Stopping regimes and stops.

2.3.3 Practical values of stop spacings.

2.4 Accelerated rail transit operations with fixed stopping schedules.

2.4.1 Skip-stop operation.

2.4.2 Zonal operation.

2.4.3 Express/local operation.

2.4.4 Comparison of all-stop, skip-stop, zonal and express/local operations.

2.4.5 Methodology for selection of accelerated operations.

2.5 Scheduling of single-track lines, circle lines and trunk lines with branches.

2.5.1 Single-track lines.

2.5.2 Circle lines.

2.5.3 Trunk lines with branches.

Chapter 3. Modeling and Optimization in Transit Systems Analysis.

3.1 Application of systems analysis in transit.

3.1.1 Introduction of methodology.

3.1.2 Classification of applications.

3.2 Conceptual models.

3.2.1 The conceptual modeling methodology.

3.2.2 Representative applications of conceptual models.

3.3 Mathematical modeling procedure and applications.

3.3.1 The mathematical modeling procedure.

3.3.2 Models for optimization of rolling stock.

3.3.3 Models for analysis of operations.

3.4 Applications of simulation methodology.

3.5 Evaluation of systems analysis and operations research in transit.

Chapter 4. Transit Lines and Networks.

4.1 Planning objectives, principles and considerations.

4.1.1 Passenger attraction.

4.1.2 Network operating efficiency.

4.1.3 Network - city interactions.

4.2 Geometry of transit lines.

4.2.1 Spacing of parallel lines.

4.2.2 Line lengths.

4.2.3 Line alignments.

4.2.4 Independent vs. integrated lines.

4.3 Types of transit lines and their characteristics.

4.3.1 Radial and diametrical lines.

4.3.2 Tangential, circumferential, circle and loop lines.

4.3.3 Trunk lines with branches and feeders.

4.3.4 Rights-of-way in special alignments.

4.4 Transfers in transit networks.

4.4.1 Classification of transfers by headway length.

4.4.2 Classification of transfers by type of line.

4.4.3 Metro station layouts and schedules for simultaneous transfers.

4.4.4 The importance of transfers.

4.5 Timed transfer system networks.

4.5.1 Timed transfer system scheduling.

4.5.2 Multifocal networks.

4.5.3 Graphical presentation of synchronized schedules.

4.6 Transit network types and their characteristics.

4.6.1 Networks of modes with different right-of-way categories.

4.6.2 Rail transit network types and their characteristics.

4.6.3 Review of transit network types.

4.7 Analysis of metro network geometric forms.

4.7.1 Classification of metro network measures and indicators.

4.7.2 Network size and form.

4.7.3 Network topology.

4.7.4 Application to network analysis.

4.7.5 Relationship of metro network to the city.

4.7.6 Measures of offered and utilized service.

4.7.7 Selection of evaluation items for specific analyses.

Chapter 5. Planning of Rail Transit Station Locations.

5.1 Objectives in station location planning.

5.2 Passenger travel time.

5.2.1 Two trade-offs.

5.2.2 The model.

5.2.3 Case a: uniform passenger distribution.

5.2.4 Case b: uniform cumulative boarding.

5.2.5 Case c: variable cumulative boarding.

5.2.6 Case d: variable boarding and alighting.

5.2.7 Application of theoretical analysis to rapid transit station planning.

5.3 Other objectives in station locations selection.

5.3.1 Area coverage.

5.3.2 Attraction of passengers.

5.3.3 Cost of stations.

5.3.4 Auto-transit interface.

5.3.5 Local objectives and requirements.

5.4 Integration of objectives.

5.5 Addition or closing of a station.

5.6 Area coverage vs. operating speed.

5.6.1 Conventional approaches to planning of stations.

5.6.2 Use of skip-stop services to improve area coverage.

5.7 Station spacings on actual rail transit networks.

Chapter 6. Transit Agency Operations, Economics and Marketing.

6.1 Organizational Structure of Transit Agencies.

6.1.1 Board of directors.

6.1.2 Organizational setup.

6.2 Management and Personnel.

6.2.1 Management organization.

6.2.2 Personnel and labor unions.

6.3 Transit System Statistics, Performance and Economic Measures.

6.3.1 Transit service area and its characteristics.

6.3.2 Transit system and services.

6.3.3 Transit usage, work and productivity.

6.3.4 Revenues, costs and operating ratio.

6.3.5 Indicators of efficiency, utilization and consumption.

6.4 Transit Agency Operations.

6.4.1 Attitudes toward transit users.

6.4.2 Organization and control of operations.

6.4.3 Applications of ITS/Telematics technology.

6.4.4 Rail rolling stock/bus fleet maintenance and replacement.

6.4.5 Safety, legal suits and security.

6.5 Transit System Full Accessibility.

6.5.1 The problem of mobility and its solutions.

6.5.2 Accessibility of different transit modes.

6.5.3 Accessibility for different user categories.

6.5.4 Results and significance of full accessibility.

6.6 Information System for Passengers.

6.6.1 Planning a transit information system.

6.6.2 Classification of present and potential users.

6.6.3 Information items, their contents and forms.

6.6.4 Locations of information.

6.6.5 Common causes for deficiencies in information systems.

6.6.6 Planning, testing and maintenance of the information system.

6.7 Marketing and Public Relations.

6.7.1 Definition and purpose.

6.7.2 Marketing strategies.

6.7.3 Marketing activities.

6.7.4 Public relations.

6.7.5 Conclusions.

Chapter 7. Transit Fares.

7.1 Objectives in transit fare determination.

7.2 Fare collection.

7.2.1 Times, locations and methods of fare collection and control.

7.2.2 Forms of payment.

7.2.3 Self-service fare collection - SSFC.

7.2.4 Automated fare collection - AFC.

7.2.5 Evaluation of fare collection systems.

7.3 Fare structures.

7.3.1 Flat fare.

7.3.2 Graduated fares.

7.3.3 Comparison of the three fare structures.

7.3.4 Transfer fares.

7.4 Reduced and special fares.

7.4.1 Fares for high-quality services.

7.4.2 Peak/off-peak and commuter fares.

7.4.3 Children and student fares.

7.4.4 Fares for senior citizens, disabled and low-income persons.

7.4.5 Owl, group, family and other special fares.

7.4.6 Use of special fares.

7.5 Fare level.

7.5.1 Influencing factors.

7.5.2 The range and domains of fare level.

7.5.3 Fare elasticity of transit demand.

7.5.4 Characteristics of different domains.

7.5.5 Selection of fare level.

Chapter 8. Financing of Transit.

8.1 Principles and Trends in Financing Transit Services.

8.1.1 Government participation in transportation financing.

8.1.2 Funding of different transportation modes in the U.S.

8.1.3 Principles in allocating transportation funds.

8.1.4 Sources of funds for public services.

8.1.5 Relationship of fare levels and public financing.

8.1.6 Roles of different government levels.

8.1.7 Summary review of public policies in transit financing.

8.2 Sources of Local and State Funds for Transit.

8.2.1 Taxes dedicated to transit.

8.2.2 Characteristics of different types of taxes.

8.2.3 Transit organizations with taxation powers.

8.2.4 Structure of local-state-federal funding.

8.3 Federal Funding of Transit.

8.3.1 Development of the federal role in transit.

8.3.2 Trends in federal funding.

8.3.3Criteria for capital fund allocation.

8.4 Improving efficiency of transit agencies.

8.4.1 Requirements for efficiency.

8.4.2 International efforts to increase transit efficiency.

Chapter 9. Transit Ownership, Regulation and Organization.

9.1 Private transit companies and public takeover.

9.1.1 Transit origins and the needs for government control.

9.1.2 The problems with private companies.

9.1.3 Public takeover of transit companies.

9.2 Ownership and forms of transit systems.

9.2.1 Private transit companies.

9.2.2 City area public transit agencies.

9.2.3 Regional transit agencies.

9.3 Integration of services provided by different operators.

9.3.1 Limited functional integration.

9.3.2 Full functional integration: Transit federation.

9.4 Regulation of transit services.

9.4.1 Purposes of regulation and its categories by subject.

9.4.2 The role and importance of transit regulation.

9.5 Unregulated transit services.

9.5.1 Unregulated paratransit in developing countries.

9.5.2 Deregulation experiments in developed countries.

9.5.3 Transit deregulation in other countries.

9.6 Evolving forms of transit ownership, organization and management.

9.6.1 Organizational problems and their causes.

9.6.2 Reevaluation of transit agency structures.

9.6.3 Privatization and other forms of transit reorganization.

Chapter 10. Transit Systems Planning.

10.1 Purpose and organization of transit planning.

10.1.1 Short- and long-range transit planning.

10.1.2 Need for comprehensive planning.

10.1.3 Legal and administrative aspects.

10.1.4 The initial set of comprehensive transportation plans.

10.1.5 Evolution and trends in urban transportation planning.

10.2 Planning procedure and methodology.

10.2.1 The basic steps in a transportation planning process.

10.2.2 Transit system planning procedure.

10.2.3 Setting goals, policies, objectives and standards.

10.2.3 Data collection and evaluation of the present system.

10.3 Travel and transit demand forecasting.

10.3.1 Introduction to four-step and other demand forecasting models.

10.3.2 Trip generation.

10.3.3 Trip distribution.

10.3.4 Modal split.

10.3.5 Trip assignment.

10.3.6 Alternative methods to four-step model.

10.4 Transit plan development, evaluation and selection.

10.4.1 Planning procedure.

10.4.2 Examples of long-range transit planning.

10.5 Review of the process and trends in transit planning.

10.5.1 Planning process and its components.

10.5.2 Trends in transit planning.

Chapter 11. Analysis, Evaluation and Selection of Transit Modes.

11.1 Evaluation and selection of public projects.

11.2 Transit mode evaluations.

11.2.1 Classification and review of mode comparison studies.

11.2.2 The basic principles and methodology for transit mode evaluation.

11.3 Definition of the "conditions set".

11.3.1 Passenger requirements.

11.3.2 Operator's requirements.

11.3.3 Community requirements.

11.3.4 Selection of requirements.

11.4 Formulation of candidate modes, their comparison and selection.

11.4.1 Formulation of alternative modes or systems.

11.4.2 Mode evaluation and selection.

11.4.3 Summary of mode selection procedure.

11.4.4 An example of the mode comparison procedure: Lindenwold Rail Line and Shirley Busway.

Chapter 12. Planning and Selection of Medium and High Performance Transit Modes.

12.1 Basic elements of transit modes.

12.1.1 Right-of-way categories and their significance.

12.1.2 Transit system technology.

12.1.3 Type of network and service.

12.1.4 Interdependence of ROW and systems technology.

12.1.5 Review of technological and operational features.

12.2 Medium performance transit modes.

12.2.1 Bus Rapid Transit - BRT.

12.2.2 Light Rail Transit - LRT.

12.2.3 Automated Guided Transit - AGT.

12.2.4 Comparisons of medium performance modes.

12.3 High performance transit modes.

12.3.1 Light rail rapid transit modes.

12.3.2 Rail Rapid Transit or Metro.

12.3.3 Rubber Tired Rapid Transit - RTRT.

12.3.4 Monorails.

12.3.5 Review of guided modes and their automation.

12.3.6 Regional transit modes.

12.3.7 Trends in regional rail transit development.

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Vukan R. Vuchic, PhD, is UPS Foundation Professor of Transportation Engineering and Professor of City and Regional Planning at the University of Pennsylvania. He has consulted in many cities around the world, lectured at seventy universities, and authored more than 140 publications, including the books Urban Public Transportation Systems and Technology and Transportation for Livable Cities.
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  • Only modern text to present a comprehensive approach to all aspects of transit system operation and management
  • Dozens of worked problems help students to better understand the formulae and principles presented
  • End of chapter exercises provide a convenient way to review the concepts just presented

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"In a unique approach, this comprehensive book provides an integration of theoretical concepts, analytical methods and practical solutions that transit operators and planners need." (Public Transport International, May 2005)

"…essential knowledge for someone planning a transport system." (Tramways & Urban Transit, September 2007)

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