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The Chemistry and Technology of Magnesia

ISBN: 978-0-471-65603-6
266 pages
June 2006
The Chemistry and Technology of Magnesia (0471656038) cover image
A Complete Guide to Magnesia-From Mining to End Use

Often relegated to footnote status in texts, magnesia is nevertheless a valuable substance widely used in applications ranging from wastewater treatment to catalysis. The Chemistry and Technology of Magnesia fills the long-standing gap in the literature with a comprehensive, one-stop reference to "all things magnesia."

The book brings together the many strands of information on magnesium compounds, their production, testing and evaluation, technology, applications, and markets. Opening with an introductory history of the chemical, it covers the life cycle of magnesia, natural and synthetic production, and uses in different fields including the environmental, health, and agricultural industries. Readers will find the section on health and safety issues particularly relevant.

Chapters include:
* The History of Magnesia
* Synthetic Magnesia
* Pulp Applications
* Environmental Applications
* Magnesia Cements
* Furnaces and Kilns
* Post Calcination Processing
* Other Magnesia Products
* Mining and Processing Magnesite
* The Physical and Chemical Properties of Magnesium Oxide
* Water and Wastewater Application for Magnesia Products
* Magnesia in Polymer Applications
* The Role of Magnesium in Animal, Plants, and Human Nutrition
* Magnesium Salts and Magnesium Metal
* The Formation and Occurrence of Magnesite
* Calcination of Magnesium Hydroxide and Carbonate
* Miscellaneous Magnesia Applications
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Preface.

Acknowledgments.

1 History of Magnesia.

1.1 History of Magnesia.

2 Formation and Occurrence of Magnesite and Brucite.

2.1 Introduction.

2.2 Sedimentary Magnesite—Basis for Carbonate Deposition.

2.3 Serpentine Alteration by Hydrothermal Processes.

2.4 Cryptocrystalline Magnesite Formation by Infiltration.

2.5 Crystalline Magnesite—Replacement of Limestone and Dolomite.

2.6 Brucite.

2.7 Worldwide Occurrence of Magnesite and Brucite.

2.8 Physical and Chemical Properties of Magnesite.

2.9 Chemical and Physical Properties of Brucite.

3 Synthetic Magnesia.

3.1 Introduction.

3.2 Composition of Seawater and Brines.

3.3 Process Description.

3.4 Calcination.

3.5 Grinding.

3.6 Packaging.

3.7 Sampling and Testing and In-Process Quality Control.

3.8 Aman Process.

3.9 General Properties of Synthetic Magnesia.

4 Mining and Processing Magnesite.

4.1 Mining Operations.

4.2 Processing Magnesite.

4.3 Gravity Concentration.

4.4 Tertiary Crushing.

4.5 Postcalcination Screening and Grinding.

5 Calcination of Magnesium Hydroxide and Carbonate.

5.1 Calcination of Magnesite.

5.2 Calcination of Magnesium Hydroxide.

6 Furnaces and Kilns.

6.1 Introduction.

6.2 Multiple-Hearth Furnaces.

6.3 Horizontal Rotary Kilns.

6.4 External Water Coolers.

6.5 Shaft Kilns.

7 Postcalcination Processing.

7.1 Introduction.

7.2 Grinding.

8 Physical and Chemical Properties of Magnesium Oxide.

8.1 Introduction.

8.2 Physical Properties of Magnesium Oxide.

8.3 Chemical Properties of Magnesium Oxide.

8.4 Surface Structures of MgO.

8.5 Molecular Adsorption on MgO.

9 Other Magnesia Products.

9.1 Production of Hard-Burned Magnesia.

9.2 Production of Dead-Burned Magnesia.

9.3 Fused Magnesia.

9.4 Magnesium Hydroxide Slurry.

9.5 Purification by Carbonation of Magnesium Hydroxide Slurry.

10 Water and Wastewater Applications for Magnesia Products.

10.1 Introduction to Applications.

10.2 Industrial Wastewater Treatment.

10.3 Advantages of Magnesium Hydroxide in Wastewater Treatment.

10.4 Adsorption of Dyes on Magnesium Hydroxide.

10.5 Biological Wastewater Treatment.

10.6 Bioflocculation and Solids Settling.

10.7 Phosphorus Removal from Wastewater and Struvite Formation.

10.8 Odor and Corrosion Control in Sanitary Collection Systems.

10.9 Acid Mine Drainage.

10.10 Silica Removal from Industrial Plant Water.

11 Magnesia in Polymer Applications.

11.1 Magnesium Hydroxide as a Flame Retardant for Polymer Applications.

11.2 Flame-Retardant Mechanisms.

11.3 Properties Required of Magnesium Hydroxide for Flame-Retardant Applications.

11.4 Novel Applications for Magnesium Hydroxide as a Flame Retardant.

11.5 Polymer Curing and Thickening.

12 Environmental Applications.

12.1 Flue Gas Desulfurization.

12.2 Regenerative Process.

12.3 Remediation Applications.

12.4 Nuclear Waste Disposal.

12.5 Hazardous Spill Cleanup.

12.6 Antibacterial Activity of Magnesium Oxide Powder.

12.7 Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Using Brucite.

13 Role of Magnesium in Animal, Plant, and Human Nutrition.

13.1 Role of Magnesium in Plant Nutrition.

13.2 Magnesium Fertilizers.

13.3 Magnesium in Animal Nutrition.

13.4 Magnesium in Human Health and Nutrition.

14 Magnesium Salts and Magnesium Metal.

14.1 Magnesium Acetate.

14.2 Magnesium Alkyls.

14.3 Magnesium Chloride.

14.4 Magnesium Nitrate.

14.5 Magnesium Sulfate.

14.6 Magnesium Soaps.

14.7 Magnesium Overbase Sulfonates.

14.8 Magnesium Peroxide.

14.9 Magnesium Metal Production.

15 Pulp Applications.

15.1 Sulfite Pulping.

15.2 Magnefite Pulping Process.

15.3 Pulp Bleaching.

15.4 Deinking.

16 Magnesia Cements.

16.1 Introduction.

16.2 Magnesium Oxychloride Cement.

16.3 Magnesium Oxysulfate (MOS) Cement.

16.4 Thermal Insulative and Fire Resistance Properties of Sorel Cement.

16.5 Magnesium Phosphate Cement.

17 Miscellaneous Magnesia Applications.

17.1 Sugar Manufacture.

17.2 Chrome Tanning of Leather.

17.3 Magnesia as a Catalyst Support.

17.4 Fuel Additives.

17.5 Well-Drilling Fluids.

17.6 Nanoparticulate Magnesia.

17.7 Transformer Steel Coating.

Appendix.

Index.

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MARK A. SHAND is the Director of Technical Services for Premier Chemicals, LLC, where he is responsible for the research and development of magnesia chemicals. He has technical experience with dispersion technologies, industrial and municipal applications, and production of magnesia and oxide products. In addition, he has written several articles on magnesia and oxide. He is also a member of the American Chemical Society.
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"...a very useful manual for the student, engineer, and the plant manager...well produced and fills a gap in the metallurgical and technical literature." (Journal of Metals Online, April 20, 2007)

"Highly recommended." (CHOICE, December 2006)

"This book will be useful for mining geologists, chemists, and scientists who deal with the application of lime and magnesia industries." (Environmental Geology, January 2007)

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