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Grounds for Grounding: A Circuit to System Handbook

ISBN: 978-0-471-66008-8
1088 pages
January 2010, Wiley-IEEE Press
Grounds for Grounding: A Circuit to System Handbook (0471660086) cover image


Grounding design and installation is critical for the safety and performance of any electrical or electronic system. Blending theory and practice, this is the first book to provide a thorough approach to grounding from circuit to system. It covers: grounding for safety aspects in facilities, lightning, and NEMP; grounding in printed circuit board, cable shields, and enclosure grounding; and applications in fixed and mobile facilities on land, at sea, and in air. It?s an indispensable resource for electrical and electronic engineers concerned with the design of electronic circuits and systems.
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Table of Contents



1. Overview.


2. Fundamental Concepts.

2.1. Maxwell’s Equations Demystified.

2.2. Boundary Conditions.

2.3. Intrinsic Inductance of Conductors and Interconnects.

2.4. Nonideal Properties of Passive Circuit Components and Interconnects.

2.5. Return Current Path Impedance.

2.6. Transmission Line Fundamentals.

2.7. Characteristics of Signals and Circuits.

2.8. Interaction between Sources to Radiated Fields.


3. The Grounds for Grounding.

3.1. Grounding, an Introduction.

3.2. Objectives of Grounding.

3.3. Grounding-Related Case Studies.


4. Fundamentals of Grounding Design.

4.1. Ground-Coupled Interference and its Preclusion.

4.2. Fundamental Grounding Topologies.

4.3. Grounding Trees.

4.4. Role of Switch-Mode Power Supplies in Grounding System Design.

4.5. Ground Loops.

4.6. Zoned Grounding.

4.7. Equipment Enclosure and Signal Grounding.

4.8. Rack and Cabinet Subsystem Grounding Architecture.

4.9. Grounding Strategy Applied by System Size and Layout.


5. Bonding Principles.

5.1. Objectives of Bonding.

5.2. Bond Impedance Requirements.

5.3. Types of Bonds.

5.4. Surface Treatment.

5.5. Dissimilar Metals Consideration: Corrosion Control.


6. Grounding for Power Distribution and Lightning Protection Systems.

6.1. Introduction.

6.2. Power System Earthing.

6.3. Earthing for Low-Voltage Distribution System.

6.4. Lightning Protection.

6.5. The Earth Connection.

6.6. Types of Earth Electrodes.

6.7. Design of Earth Electrodes and their Layout.

6.8. Measurement of Soil Resistivity, Earth Electrode Resistance and Earthing System Impedance.

6.9. Reducing Earth Resistance.

6.10. Bonding to Building Structures.


7. Grounding in Wiring Circuits and Cable Shields.

7.1. Introduction: System Interface Problems.

7.2. To Ground or Not To Ground (Cable Shields).

7.3. Fundamentals of Cable Shielding.

7.4. Shield Surface Transfer Impedance.

7.5. Grounding Considerations in Signal Interfaces.

7.6. Grounding of Transducers and Measurement Instrumentation Systems.


8. Grounding of EMI Terminal Protection Devices.

8.1. Filtering and Transient-Voltage Suppression—Complementary Techniques to Shielding.

8.2. Types of Conducted Noise.

8.3. Overview of Filtering and Transient Voltage Suppression.

8.4. Grounding of Filters and Transient-Suppression Devices.


9. Grounding on Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs).

9.1. Interference Sources on PCBs.

9.2. "Grounding" on PCBs.

9.3. Signal Propagation on PCBs.

9.4. Return Path Discontinuities: "Mind the Gap".

9.5. Delta-I (DI) and Simultaneous Switching Noise (SSN) in PCBs.

9.6. Return Planes and PCB Layer Stack-up.

9.7. Cuts and Splits in Return Planes.

9.8. Grounding in Mixed-Signal Systems.

9.9. Chassis Connections ("Chassis Stitching").


10. Integrated Facility and Platform Grounding System.

10.1. Facility Grounding Subsystems.

10.2. Grounding Requirements in Buildings or Facilities.

10.3. Grounding for Preclusion of Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) Effects in Facilities.

10.4. Grounding Principles in Mobile Platforms and Vehicles.


APPENDIX A. Glossary of Grounding-Related Terms and Definitions.

APPENDIX B. Acronyms.

APPENDIX C. Symbols and Constants.

APPENDIX D. Grounding Related Standards, Specifications, and Handbooks.

D.1. ANSI Standards.

D.2. ATIS Standards.

D.3. British Standards.

D.4. CENELEC and ETSI Publications.

D.5. IEC Standards.

D.6. IEEE Standards.

D.7. International Space Station (ISS) Program Standards.

D.8. ITU-T Recommendations.

D.9. Military Standards and Handbooks.

D.10. NASA Standards and Handbooks.

D.11. NFPA Codes and Standards.

D.12. SAE Recommended Practices.

D.13. TIA/EIA Standards.

D.14. UL Standards.

D.15. Other (Miscellaneous) Standards.

APPENDIX E. On the Correspondence between Ohm’s Law and Fermat’s Least Time Principle.

E.1. Origin of the LT/MP Principle.

E.2. Statement of the LT/MP Principle.

E.3. Derivation of the Equivalence between Ohm’s Law and Fermat’s Least Time Principle.

E.4. Equivalence of Ohm’s Law and the LT/MP Theory.


APPENDIX F. Overview of S Parameters.

F.1. Background.

F.2. Ports and Interaction Matrices.

F.3. The Scattering Matrix and S Parameters.

F.3.1. The Scattering (S) Matrix.

F.3.2. S21, or "Forward Transmission Gain/Loss".

F.3.3 S11, or "Input Return Loss".

F.3.4. S22, or "Output Return Loss".

F.3.5. S12, or "Reverse Gain and Reverse Isolation".

F.4. Characteristic Values of S Parameters.

F.5. S Parameters in Loss-Free and Lossy Networks.

F.5.1. The Loss-Free Network.

F.5.2. Lossy Networks.

F.5.3. Insertion Loss.

F.5.4. Radiation Loss.



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Author Information

Elya B. Joffe is Vice President of Engineering for K.T.M. Project Engineering, an engineering consulting company located in Israel. He has been involved in EMC design, development, and engineering since 1981. He is currently active as an EMC consulting specialist in the EMC design of commercial and military systems, from circuits to platforms and large-scale installations and facilities. His work covers EMC, EMP and Lightning Protection design, as well as numerical modeling for solution of EMC Problems. He is also well known for his EMC and EMC-related training programs. He is a Senior Member of the IEEE, a member of the IEEE EMC Society, President of the EMC Society (2008-2009), and a past chairman of the Israel IEEE EMC Chapter.

Kai-Sang Lock, PhD, is founder and Principal Consultant of PQR Technologies Pte Ltd in Singapore. He is a consultant in the areas of power quality, reliability, and safety. Dr. Lock is a registered Professional Engineer in Singapore; a Fellow of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, UK; the President and a Fellow of the Institution of Engineers, Singapore; as well as a Senior Member of the IEEE. He is also a Board Member of the Professional Engineers Board, Singapore, and the Chairman of the Singapore Standards Council.

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