Grounds for Grounding: A Circuit to System Handbook
January 2010, Wiley-IEEE Press
2. Fundamental Concepts.
2.1. Maxwell’s Equations Demystified.
2.2. Boundary Conditions.
2.3. Intrinsic Inductance of Conductors and Interconnects.
2.4. Nonideal Properties of Passive Circuit Components and Interconnects.
2.5. Return Current Path Impedance.
2.6. Transmission Line Fundamentals.
2.7. Characteristics of Signals and Circuits.
2.8. Interaction between Sources to Radiated Fields.
3. The Grounds for Grounding.
3.1. Grounding, an Introduction.
3.2. Objectives of Grounding.
3.3. Grounding-Related Case Studies.
4. Fundamentals of Grounding Design.
4.1. Ground-Coupled Interference and its Preclusion.
4.2. Fundamental Grounding Topologies.
4.3. Grounding Trees.
4.4. Role of Switch-Mode Power Supplies in Grounding System Design.
4.5. Ground Loops.
4.6. Zoned Grounding.
4.7. Equipment Enclosure and Signal Grounding.
4.8. Rack and Cabinet Subsystem Grounding Architecture.
4.9. Grounding Strategy Applied by System Size and Layout.
5. Bonding Principles.
5.1. Objectives of Bonding.
5.2. Bond Impedance Requirements.
5.3. Types of Bonds.
5.4. Surface Treatment.
5.5. Dissimilar Metals Consideration: Corrosion Control.
6. Grounding for Power Distribution and Lightning Protection Systems.
6.2. Power System Earthing.
6.3. Earthing for Low-Voltage Distribution System.
6.4. Lightning Protection.
6.5. The Earth Connection.
6.6. Types of Earth Electrodes.
6.7. Design of Earth Electrodes and their Layout.
6.8. Measurement of Soil Resistivity, Earth Electrode Resistance and Earthing System Impedance.
6.9. Reducing Earth Resistance.
6.10. Bonding to Building Structures.
7. Grounding in Wiring Circuits and Cable Shields.
7.1. Introduction: System Interface Problems.
7.2. To Ground or Not To Ground (Cable Shields).
7.3. Fundamentals of Cable Shielding.
7.4. Shield Surface Transfer Impedance.
7.5. Grounding Considerations in Signal Interfaces.
7.6. Grounding of Transducers and Measurement Instrumentation Systems.
8. Grounding of EMI Terminal Protection Devices.
8.1. Filtering and Transient-Voltage Suppression—Complementary Techniques to Shielding.
8.2. Types of Conducted Noise.
8.3. Overview of Filtering and Transient Voltage Suppression.
8.4. Grounding of Filters and Transient-Suppression Devices.
9. Grounding on Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs).
9.1. Interference Sources on PCBs.
9.2. "Grounding" on PCBs.
9.3. Signal Propagation on PCBs.
9.4. Return Path Discontinuities: "Mind the Gap".
9.5. Delta-I (DI) and Simultaneous Switching Noise (SSN) in PCBs.
9.6. Return Planes and PCB Layer Stack-up.
9.7. Cuts and Splits in Return Planes.
9.8. Grounding in Mixed-Signal Systems.
9.9. Chassis Connections ("Chassis Stitching").
10. Integrated Facility and Platform Grounding System.
10.1. Facility Grounding Subsystems.
10.2. Grounding Requirements in Buildings or Facilities.
10.3. Grounding for Preclusion of Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) Effects in Facilities.
10.4. Grounding Principles in Mobile Platforms and Vehicles.
APPENDIX A. Glossary of Grounding-Related Terms and Definitions.
APPENDIX B. Acronyms.
APPENDIX C. Symbols and Constants.
APPENDIX D. Grounding Related Standards, Specifications, and Handbooks.
D.1. ANSI Standards.
D.2. ATIS Standards.
D.3. British Standards.
D.4. CENELEC and ETSI Publications.
D.5. IEC Standards.
D.6. IEEE Standards.
D.7. International Space Station (ISS) Program Standards.
D.8. ITU-T Recommendations.
D.9. Military Standards and Handbooks.
D.10. NASA Standards and Handbooks.
D.11. NFPA Codes and Standards.
D.12. SAE Recommended Practices.
D.13. TIA/EIA Standards.
D.14. UL Standards.
D.15. Other (Miscellaneous) Standards.
APPENDIX E. On the Correspondence between Ohm’s Law and Fermat’s Least Time Principle.
E.1. Origin of the LT/MP Principle.
E.2. Statement of the LT/MP Principle.
E.3. Derivation of the Equivalence between Ohm’s Law and Fermat’s Least Time Principle.
E.4. Equivalence of Ohm’s Law and the LT/MP Theory.
APPENDIX F. Overview of S Parameters.
F.2. Ports and Interaction Matrices.
F.3. The Scattering Matrix and S Parameters.
F.3.1. The Scattering (S) Matrix.
F.3.2. S21, or "Forward Transmission Gain/Loss".
F.3.3 S11, or "Input Return Loss".
F.3.4. S22, or "Output Return Loss".
F.3.5. S12, or "Reverse Gain and Reverse Isolation".
F.4. Characteristic Values of S Parameters.
F.5. S Parameters in Loss-Free and Lossy Networks.
F.5.1. The Loss-Free Network.
F.5.2. Lossy Networks.
F.5.3. Insertion Loss.
F.5.4. Radiation Loss.
Kai-Sang Lock, PhD, is founder and Principal Consultant of PQR Technologies Pte Ltd in Singapore. He is a consultant in the areas of power quality, reliability, and safety. Dr. Lock is a registered Professional Engineer in Singapore; a Fellow of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, UK; the President and a Fellow of the Institution of Engineers, Singapore; as well as a Senior Member of the IEEE. He is also a Board Member of the Professional Engineers Board, Singapore, and the Chairman of the Singapore Standards Council.