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Antenna Theory: Analysis and Design, 3rd Edition

ISBN: 978-0-471-66782-7
1136 pages
April 2005, ©2005
Antenna Theory: Analysis and Design, 3rd Edition (047166782X) cover image
The discipline of antenna theory has experienced vast technological changes. In response, Constantine Balanis has updated his classic text, Antenna Theory, offering the most recent look at all the necessary topics. New material includes smart antennas and fractal antennas, along with the latest applications in wireless communications. Multimedia material on an accompanying CD presents PowerPoint viewgraphs of lecture notes, interactive review questions, Java animations and applets, and MATLAB features. Like the previous editions, Antenna Theory, Third Edition meets the needs of electrical engineering and physics students at the senior undergraduate and beginning graduate levels, and those of practicing engineers as well. It is a benchmark text for mastering the latest theory in the subject, and for better understanding the technological applications.

An Instructor's Manual presenting detailed solutions to all the problems in the book is available from the Wiley editorial department.

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Preface xiii

1 Antennas 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Types of Antennas 4

1.3 Radiation Mechanism 7

1.4 Current Distribution on a Thin Wire Antenna 17

1.5 Historical Advancement 20

1.6 Multimedia 24

References 24

2 Fundamental Parameters of Antennas 27

2.1 Introduction 27

2.2 Radiation Pattern 27

2.3 Radiation Power Density 38

2.4 Radiation Intensity 40

2.5 Beamwidth 42

2.6 Directivity 44

2.7 Numerical Techniques 58

2.8 Antenna Efficiency 64

2.9 Gain 65

2.10 Beam Efficiency 69

2.11 Bandwidth 70

2.12 Polarization 70

2.13 Input Impedance 80

2.14 Antenna Radiation Efficiency 85

2.15 Antenna Vector Effective Length and Equivalent Areas 87

2.16 Maximum Directivity and Maximum Effective Area 92

2.17 Friis Transmission Equation and Radar Range Equation 94

2.18 Antenna Temperature 104

2.19 Multimedia 108

References 112

Problems 114

3 Radiation Integrals and Auxiliary Potential Functions 133

3.1 Introduction 133

3.2 The Vector Potential A for an Electric Current Source J 135

3.3 The Vector Potential F for a Magnetic Current Source M 137

3.4 Electric and Magnetic Fields for Electric (J) and Magnetic (M) Current Sources 138

3.5 Solution of the Inhomogeneous Vector Potential Wave Equation 139

3.6 Far-Field Radiation 142

3.7 Duality Theorem 144

3.8 Reciprocity and Reaction Theorems 144

References 150

Problems 150

4 Linear Wire Antennas 151

4.1 Introduction 151

4.2 Infinitesimal Dipole 151

4.3 Small Dipole 162

4.4 Region Separation 165

4.5 Finite Length Dipole 170

4.6 Half-Wavelength Dipole 182

4.7 Linear Elements Near or on Infinite Perfect Conductors 184

4.8 Ground Effects 205

4.9 Computer Codes 214

4.10 Multimedia 217

References 218

Problems 219

5 Loop Antennas 231

5.1 Introduction 231

5.2 Small Circular Loop 232

5.3 Circular Loop of Constant Current 246

5.4 Circular Loop with Nonuniform Current 255

5.5 Ground and Earth Curvature Effects for Circular Loops 261

5.6 Polygonal Loop Antennas 263

5.7 Ferrite Loop 266

5.8 Mobile Communication Systems Applications 268

5.9 Multimedia 269

References 273

Problems 275

6 Arrays: Linear, Planar, and Circular 283

6.1 Introduction 283

6.2 Two-Element Array 284

6.3 N-Element Linear Array: Uniform Amplitude and Spacing 290

6.4 N-Element Linear Array: Directivity 313

6.5 Design Procedure 318

6.6 N-Element Linear Array: Three-Dimensional Characteristics 320

6.7 Rectangular-to-Polar Graphical Solution 322

6.8 N-Element Linear Array: Uniform Spacing, Nonuniform Amplitude 324

6.9 Superdirectivity 345

6.10 Planar Array 349

6.11 Design Considerations 362

6.12 Circular Array 365

6.13 Multimedia 369

References 370

Problems 371

7 Antenna Synthesis and Continuous Sources 385

7.1 Introduction 385

7.2 Continuous Sources 386

7.3 Schelkunoff Polynomial Method 388

7.4 Fourier Transform Method 393

7.5 Woodward-Lawson Method 399

7.6 Taylor Line-Source (Tschebyscheff-Error) 406

7.7 Taylor Line-Source (One-Parameter) 410

7.8 Triangular, Cosine, and Cosine-Squared Amplitude Distributions 417

7.9 Line-Source Phase Distributions 418

7.10 Continuous Aperture Sources 419

7.11 Multimedia 423

References 423

Problems 424

8 Integral Equations, Moment Method, and Self and Mutual Impedances 433

8.1 Introduction 433

8.2 Integral Equation Method 434

8.3 Finite Diameter Wires 442

8.4 Moment Method Solution 450

8.5 Self-Impedance 458

8.6 Mutual Impedance Between Linear Elements 468

8.7 Mutual Coupling in Arrays 478

8.8 Multimedia 491

References 491

Problems 494

9 Broadband Dipoles and Matching Techniques 497

9.1 Introduction 497

9.2 Biconical Antenna 500

9.3 Triangular Sheet, Bow-Tie, and Wire Simulation 506

9.4 Cylindrical Dipole 508

9.5 Folded Dipole 515

9.6 Discone and Conical Skirt Monopole 521

9.7 Matching Techniques 523

9.8 Multimedia 541

References 542

Problems 543

10 Traveling Wave and Broadband Antennas 549

10.1 Introduction 549

10.2 Traveling Wave Antennas 549

10.3 Broadband Antennas 566

10.4 Multimedia 600

References 600

Problems 602

11 Frequency Independent Antennas, Antenna Miniaturization, and Fractal Antennas 611

11.1 Introduction 611

11.2 Theory 612

11.3 Equiangular Spiral Antennas 614

11.4 Log-Periodic Antennas 619

11.5 Fundamental Limits of Electrically Small Antennas 637

11.6 Fractal Antennas 641

11.7 Multimedia 648

References 648

Problems 650

12 Aperture Antennas 653

12.1 Introduction 653

12.2 Field Equivalence Principle: Huygens’ Principle 653

12.3 Radiation Equations 660

12.4 Directivity 662

12.5 Rectangular Apertures 663

12.6 Circular Apertures 683

12.7 Design Considerations 692

12.8 Babinet’s Principle 697

12.9 Fourier Transforms in Aperture Antenna Theory 701

12.10 Ground Plane Edge Effects: The Geometrical Theory of Diffraction 721

12.11 Multimedia 726

References 726

Problems 728

13 Horn Antennas 739

13.1 Introduction 739

13.2 E-Plane Sectoral Horn 739

13.3 H-Plane Sectoral Horn 755

13.4 Pyramidal Horn 769

13.5 Conical Horn 783

13.6 Corrugated Horn 785

13.7 Aperture-Matched Horns 792

13.8 Multimode Horns 794

13.9 Dielectric-Loaded Horns 797

13.10 Phase Center 799

13.11 Multimedia 802

References 802

Problems 805

14 Microstrip Antennas 811

14.1 Introduction 811

14.2 Rectangular Patch 816

14.3 Circular Patch 843

14.4 Quality Factor, Bandwidth, and Efficiency 852

14.5 Input Impedance 855

14.6 Coupling 856

14.7 Circular Polarization 859

14.8 Arrays and Feed Networks 865

14.9 Multimedia 872

References 872

Problems 876

15 Reflector Antennas 883

15.1 Introduction 883

15.2 Plane Reflector 883

15.3 Corner Reflector 884

15.4 Parabolic Reflector 893

15.5 Spherical Reflector 934

15.6 Multimedia 936

References 937

Problems 939

16 Smart Antennas 945

16.1 Introduction 945

16.2 Smart-Antenna Analogy 946

16.3 Cellular Radio Systems Evolution 947

16.4 Signal Propagation 954

16.5 Smart Antennas’ Benefits 957

16.6 Smart Antennas’ Drawbacks 958

16.7 Antenna 958

16.8 Antenna Beamforming 962

16.9 Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs) 977

16.10 Smart-Antenna System Design, Simulation, and Results 982

16.11 Beamforming, Diversity Combining, Rayleigh-Fading, and Trellis-Coded Modulation 990

16.12 Other Geometries 993

16.13 Multimedia 994

References 995

Problems 999

17 Antenna Measurements 1001

17.1 Introduction 1001

17.2 Antenna Ranges 1003

17.3 Radiation Patterns 1021

17.4 Gain Measurements 1028

17.5 Directivity Measurements 1034

17.6 Radiation Efficiency 1036

17.7 Impedance Measurements 1036

17.8 Current Measurements 1038

17.9 Polarization Measurements 1038

17.10 Scale Model Measurements 1044

References 1045

Index 1099

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CONSTANTINE A. BALANIS received his BSEE degree from Virginia Tech in1964, his MEE degree from the University of Virginia in 1966, his PhD in electrical engineering from The Ohio State University in 1969, and an honorary doctorate from the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki in 2004. From 1964 to 1970, he was with the NASA Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia, and from 1970 to 1983, he was with the Department of Electrical Engineering of West Virginia University. In 1983, he joined Arizona State University and is now Regents' Professor of Electrical Engineering. Dr. Balanis is a Life Fellow of the IEEE and the author of Advanced Engineering Electromagnetics, also published by Wiley.
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