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Air Monitoring for Toxic Exposures, 2nd Edition

ISBN: 978-0-471-67057-5
688 pages
October 2004
Air Monitoring for Toxic Exposures, 2nd Edition (047167057X) cover image

Description

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This book offers ready-to-use information for measuring a wide variety of airborne hazardous materials including chemicals, radon, and bioaerosols. It provides the latest procedures for air sampling, collecting biological and bulk samples, evaluating dermal exposures, and determining the advantages and limitations of a given air monitoring method.

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Table of Contents

PREFACE xi

PART I BACKGROUND CONCEPTS FOR AIR MONITORING 1

1 Air Monitoring Review 3

Air Sampling in Perspective 4

Air Sampling Strategy and Plan 6

Types of Air Monitoring 7

Air Sampling Techniques 10

Sample Collection Devices 11

Direct-Reading Devices 23

Monitoring Records 31

Summary 31

References 31

2 Hazards 33

Contaminants 36

Toxic Effects 46

Warning Signs 49

Standards and Guidelines for Air Sampling 52

Exposure Controls 61

Summary 66

References 66

3 Exposure Assessment Strategy and Monitoring Plan 69

Exposure Assessment 70

Performing an Exposure Assessment 73

Exposure Monitoring Plan 88

Summary 92

References 92

4 Air Monitoring at Emergencies Including Terrorism Events 93

Reasons for Air Sampling 95

Terrorism Agents 96

Identifying a Terrorism Event 100

Planning for Emergencies and Terrorism Events 101

Air Sampling for Chemical Agents 104

Air Sampling for Biological Agents 120

Air Sampling for Radiological Hazards 121

Summary 122

References 122

PART II SAMPLE COLLECTION DEVICE METHODS FOR CHEMICALS 125

5 Introduction to Monitoring Using Sample Collection Devices 127

Review of the Metric System 128

Method Selection 129

Pumps and Other Sampling Equipment 130

Understanding the Critical Orifice 133

Calibration Devices 134

Calibration Procedures 137

Sample Identification and Chain of Custody 144

Documenting Exposure Monitoring 145

Performing the Exposure Monitoring 152

Laboratory Analysis 153

Voiding Samples 155

Examples: Calculating Air Monitoring Results 156

Comparing Results to Exposure Limits 158

Summary 158

References 159

6 Sample Collection Device Methods for Gases and Vapors 161

Active Sample Collection Device Monitoring 161

Passive Collectors for Gases and Vapors 192

Summary 205

References 205

7 Sample Collection Device Methods for Aerosols 209

Characterizing Aerosols 210

Aerosol Collection Mechanisms 215

Potential Problems 219

Total Aerosol Samplers 220

Particle Size-Selective Sampling 224

Size-Selective Sampling Devices 227

Sampling for Specific Aerosols 243

Summary 251

References 251

8 Concurrent Sampling for Vapors and Aerosols 253

Collection Methods for Semivolatile Compounds 254

Collection of Multiple Species: Arsenic 260

Combustion Processes: Cigarette Smoke Collection 262

Collection of Mixtures 263

References 264

PART III REAL-TIME MEASUREMENT INSTRUMENTS 265

9 Introduction to Monitoring Using Real-Time Methods 267

Direct-Reading Instruments 268

Colorimetric Systems 293

Summary 294

References 294

10 Instruments with Sensors for Specific Chemicals 295

Calibration 298

Electrochemical Sensors 298

Metal Oxide Sensors 305

Other Detection Principles 312

Specific Chemicals 313

Summary 323

References 323

11 General Survey Instruments for Gases and Vapors 325

Measurement of Explosive Atmospheres: Combustible Gas Indicators 327

Interpretation of Measurements of Explosive Atmospheres 336

Monitoring for Health Hazard Levels of Volatile Organic Compounds: FIDs and PIDs 338

Comparison of FID and PID for General Survey Use 356

Interpretation of General Survey Measurements for Health Hazards 356

Summary 357

References 358

12 Instruments for Multiple Specific Gases and Vapors: GC, GC/MS, and IR 359

Portable Gas Chromatographs (GCs) 360

Infrared (IR) Spectrophotometers 380

Summary 395

References 396

13 Colorimetric Systems for Gas and Vapor Sampling 397

Detector Tubes 398

Long-Term Colorimetric Tubes and Badges 417

Colorimetric Electronic Instruments 421

Summary 425

References 426

14 Real-Time Sampling Methods for Aerosols 427

Light-Scattering Monitors 429

Particle Mass Measurements with the Piezobalance 439

Summary 444

References 444

PART IV MONITORING FOR AIRBORNE AGENTS OTHER THAN CHEMICALS 445

15 Radon Measurements 447

Collection Methods for Radon and Its Progeny in Air 449

Collection Method for Radon in Water 468

Interpretation of Radon Measurements 468

Performing Follow-Up Measurements (After Screening) 469

Summary 470

References 471

16 Sampling for Bioaerosols 473

Bacteria 476

Fungus and Molds 480

Viruses 481

Other Microorganisms 482

Sampling Methods and Strategies 482

Direct-Reading Instruments for Bioaerosols 500

Interpretation of Results 501

Summary 502

References 502

PART V SPECIFIC SAMPLING APPLICATIONS AND SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION 505

17 Specific Sampling Situations 507

Confined Spaces 507

Indoor Air Quality Investigations 511

Leak Testing: Fugitive Emissions Monitoring 532

Welding Fumes 535

Carbon Monoxide from Forklifts 537

Multiple Solvents in Printing Ink Manufacture 538

Summary 539

References 539

18 Biological Monitoring 541

Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) 544

Advantages and Disadvantages of Biomonitoring 545

Method Selection 546

Interpretation of Results 556

Summary 557

References 558

19 Surface Sampling Methods 561

Wipe Sampling 565

Other Surface Sampling Methods 571

Methods that Directly Assess Worker Exposure 572

Evaluating Sample Results 578

Summary 578

References 579

20 Bulk Sampling Methods 581

Purpose 581

Sample Collection Strategies 582

Containers and Shipping 585

Personal Protection 586

Bulk Air Samples 586

Bulk Samples of Solid or Liquid Chemicals 590

Soil Sampling 597

Water Sampling 602

Summary 613

References 613

APPENDICES 615

Appendix A Air Sampling Procedures 617

Dusts, Mists, and Fumes 617

Asbestos Fibers 618

Active Sampling for Organic Vapors: Adsorption Tubes 619

Gases and Vapors: Bubblers and Impingers 622

Passive Sampling for Organic Vapors: Badges or Dosimeters 623

Respirable Dust Using a Cyclone 624

Silica 626

Total Dust 627

Gasoline and Light Hydrocarbons 628

Welding Fumes 629

Benzene 632

Appendix B Gas and Vapor Calibrations 637

Premixed Gases and Vapors in Cylinders 640

Static Calibration Mixtures 641

Gas Permeation Tubes 645

References 650

Appendix C Field Calibration of Gas and Vapor Sensors 653

Step One: Setting the “Zero” Reading 654

Step Two: Span Calibration 655

Some Calibration Tools 657

Calibrating Liquid Chemical Mixtures 658

Appendix D Chemical-Specific Guidelines for Air Sampling and Analysis 659

INDEX 681

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Author Information

HENRY J. McDERMOTT is President and Principal Scientist for H. J. McDermott, Inc., which provides professional consulting services in the general area of occupational safety and health, with emphasis in improving safety, health, and environmental performance; risk-based preventive programs; emergency response; ventilation; litigation support; increasing safety; and health staff efficiency and impact.
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Reviews

"...this up-to-date, comprehensive resource will be valuable for the industrial hygienist, emergency responder, and other safety and environmental health professional." (CHOICE, April 2005)

"The book should be in the library of every emergency response team as well as conventional sampling groups." (Journal of Hazardous Materials, March 2005)

“This second edition offers ready-to-use information for measuring a wide variety of airborne hazardous materials…” (CAB Abstracts, 2005)

"…the advances of sampling technology has greatly advanced and this text addresses them." (Industrial Hygiene News, January 2005)

"This work is highly recommended for academic, special, and industry libraries serving…all air sampling professionals who perform air monitoring…" (E-STREAMS, February 2005)

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