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Advanced Engineering Thermodynamics, 3rd Edition

ISBN: 978-0-471-67763-5
920 pages
August 2006
Advanced Engineering Thermodynamics, 3rd Edition (0471677639) cover image

Description

A brand-new, thought-provoking edition of the unmatched resource on engineering thermodynamics

Adrian Bejan's Advanced Engineering Thermodynamics established itself as the definitive volume on this challenging subject. Now, his Third Edition builds on the success of its trailblazing predecessors by providing state-of-the-art coverage in a slimmer, more convenient book.

Moving effortlessly among analysis, essay, and graphics, this streamlined edition of Adrian Bejan's powerful presentation will inspire future generations of researchers and students in all areas of engineering, physics, and life sciences. It features:
* An authoritative treatment of the first and second laws of thermodynamics and the constructal law of natural generation of flow configuration, with prominent focus on the history of the discipline and its main ideas
* Complete chapters on single-phase systems, multiphase systems, chemically reactive systems, exergy analysis, thermodynamic optimization, irreversible thermodynamics, and constructal theory
* Applications of thermodynamics to power generation, solar energy, refrigeration, air conditioning, thermofluid design, and constructal design
* The latest theoretical advances made based on the constructal law: atmospheric circulation and earth climate, animal design (flying, running, swimming), hierarchy and geography of human settlements, scaling laws of all river basins, flow fossils and Egyptian pyramids, and science as a constructal flow architecture
* A wealth of problems and worked-out examples
* Brilliant, original illustrations, plus hundreds of classic and contemporary references
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Table of Contents

PREFACE xix

PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION xxiii

PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION xxvii

SYMBOLS xxxi

1 THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 1

1.1 Elements of Thermodynamics Terminology 1

1.2 The First Law for Closed Systems 4

1.3 Work Transfer 8

1.4 Heat Transfer 13

1.5 Energy Change 17

1.6 The First Law for Open Systems 20

1.7 Historical Background 26

1.8 The Structured Presentation of the First Law 34

1.8.1 Poincare´’s Scheme 34

1.8.2 Carathe´odory’s Scheme 36

1.8.3 Keenan and Shapiro’s Second Scheme 36

References 37

Problems 39

2 THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 44

2.1 The Second Law for Closed Systems 44

2.1.1 Cycle in Contact with One Temperature Reservoir 46

2.1.2 Cycle in Contact with Two Temperature Reservoirs 46

2.1.3 Cycle in Contact with Any Number of Temperature Reservoirs 55

2.1.4 Process in Contact with Any Number of Temperature Reservoirs 57

2.2 The Second Law for Open Systems 60

2.3 The Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium Model 62

2.4 The Entropy Maximum and Energy Minimum Principles 65

2.5 Carathe´odory’s Two Axioms 70

2.5.1 Reversible and Adiabatic Surfaces 72

2.5.2 Entropy 76

2.5.3 Thermodynamic Temperature 80

2.5.4 The Two Parts of the Second Law 81

2.6 A Heat Transfer Man’s Two Axioms 81

2.7 Historical Background 88

References 89

Problems 91

3 ENTROPY GENERATION OR EXERGY DESTRUCTION 101

3.1 Lost Available Work 102

3.2 Cycles 109

3.2.1 Heat-Engine Cycles 109

3.2.2 Refrigeration Cycles 111

3.2.3 Heat-Pump Cycles 114

3.3 Nonflow Processes 116

3.4 Steady-Flow Processes 120

3.5 Mechanisms of Entropy Generation or Exergy Destruction 126

3.5.1 Heat Transfer across a Finite Temperature Difference 126

3.5.2 Flow with Friction 129

3.5.3 Mixing 131

3.6 Entropy-Generation Minimization 134

3.6.1 The Method 134

3.6.2 Geometric Optimization of a Tree-Shaped Fluid-Flow Network 135

3.6.3 Entropy-Generation Number 138

References 140

Problems 142

4 SINGLE-PHASE SYSTEMS 145

4.1 Simple System 145

4.2 Equilibrium Conditions 146

4.3 The Fundamental Relation 151

4.3.1 Energy Representation 152

4.3.2 Entropy Representation 153

4.3.3 Extensive Properties versus Intensive Properties 154

4.3.4 The Euler Equation 155

4.3.5 The Gibbs–Duhem Relation 156

4.4 Legendre Transforms 160

4.5 Relations between Thermodynamic Properties 169

4.5.1 Maxwell’s Relations 170

4.5.2 Relations Measured during Special Processes 172

4.5.3 Bridgman’s Table 181

4.5.4 Jacobians in Thermodynamics 183

4.6 Partial Molal Properties 187

4.7 Ideal Gas Mixtures 192

4.8 Real Gas Mixtures 195

References 198

Problems 199

5 EXERGY ANALYSIS 204

5.1 Nonflow Systems 204

5.2 Flow Systems 207

5.3 Generalized Exergy Analysis 211

5.4 Air-Conditioning Applications 213

5.4.1 Mixtures of Air and Water Vapor 213

5.4.2 Total Flow Exergy of Humid Air 215

5.4.3 Total Flow Exergy of Liquid Water 218

5.4.4 Evaporative Cooling Process 219

5.5 Other Aspects of Exergy Analysis 220

References 221

Problems 221

6 MULTIPHASE SYSTEMS 225

6.1 The Energy Minimum Principle in U H F and G Representations 225

6.1.1 The Energy Minimum Principle 226

6.1.2 The Enthalpy Minimum Principle 227

6.1.3 The Helmholtz Free-Energy Minimum Principle 228

6.1.4 The Gibbs Free-Energy Minimum Principle 229

6.1.5 The Star Diagram 230

6.2 The Internal Stability of a Simple System 231

6.2.1 Thermal Stability 231

6.2.2 Mechanical Stability 233

6.2.3 Chemical Stability 235

6.3 The Continuity of the Vapor and Liquid States 237

6.3.1 The Andrews Diagram and J. Thomson’s Theory 237

6.3.2 The van der Waals Equation of State 240

6.3.3 Maxwell’s Equal-Area Rule 247

6.3.4 The Clapeyron Relation 248

6.4 Phase Diagrams 249

6.4.1 The Gibbs Phase Rule 249

6.4.2 Single-Component Substances 250

6.4.3 Two-Component Mixtures 254

6.5 Corresponding States 261

6.5.1 Compressibility Factor 261

6.5.2 Analytical P(v T) Equations of State 267

6.5.3 Calculation of Other Properties Based on P(v T) and Specific Heat Information 273

6.5.4 Saturated-Liquid and Saturated-Vapor States 275

6.5.5 Metastable States 278

6.5.6 Critical-Point Phenomena 281

References 283

Problems 285

7 CHEMICALLY REACTIVE SYSTEMS 291

7.1 Equilibrium 291

7.1.1 Chemical Reactions 291

7.1.2 Affinity 294

7.1.3 The Le Chatelier–Braun Principle 297

7.1.4 Ideal Gas Mixtures 301

7.2 Irreversible Reactions 308

7.3 Steady-Flow Combustion 317

7.3.1 Combustion Stoichiometry 317

7.3.2 The First Law 319

7.3.3 The Second Law 325

7.3.4 Maximum Power Output 328

7.4 The Chemical Exergy of Fuels 339

7.5 Constant-Volume Combustion 343

7.5.1 The First Law 343

7.5.2 The Second Law 345

7.5.3 Maximum Work Output 345

References 346

Problems 348

8 POWER GENERATION 352

8.1 Maximum Power Subject to Size Constraint 352

8.2 Maximum Power from Hot Stream 356

8.3 External Irreversibilities 363

8.4 Internal Irreversibilities 369

8.4.1 Heater 369

8.4.2 Expander 370

8.4.3 Cooler 371

8.4.4 Pump 372

8.4.5 Relative Importance of Internal Irreversibilities 373

8.5 Advanced Steam-Turbine Power Plants 375

8.5.1 Superheater Reheater and Partial Condenser Vacuum 375

8.5.2 Regenerative Feed Heating 377

8.5.3 Combined Feed Heating and Reheating 385

8.6 Advanced Gas-Turbine Power Plants 390

8.6.1 External and Internal Irreversibilities 390

8.6.2 Regenerative Heat Exchanger Reheaters and Intercoolers 394

8.6.3 Cooled Turbines 397

8.7 Combined Steam-Turbine and Gas-Turbine Power Plants 400

References 403

Problems 406

9 SOLAR POWER 419

9.1 Thermodynamic Properties of Thermal Radiation 419

9.1.1 Photons 420

9.1.2 Temperature 421

9.1.3 Energy 422

9.1.4 Pressure 425

9.1.5 Entropy 425

9.2 Reversible Processes 426

9.2.1 Reversible and Adiabatic Expansion or Compression 429

9.2.2 Reversible and Isothermal Expansion or Compression 429

9.2.3 Carnot Cycle 429

9.3 Irreversible Processes 430

9.3.1 Adiabatic Free Expansion 430

9.3.2 Transformation of Monochromatic Radiation into Blackbody Radiation 431

9.3.3 Scattering 433

9.3.4 Net Radiative Heat Transfer 435

9.3.5 Kirchhoff’s Law 438

9.4 The Ideal Conversion of Enclosed Blackbody Radiation 440

9.4.1 Petela’s Theory 440

9.4.2 The Controversy 443

9.4.3 Unifying Theory 443

9.4.4 Reformulation of Jeter’s Theory 448

9.5 Maximization of Power Output per Unit Collector Area 451

9.5.1 Ideal Concentrators 451

9.5.2 Omnicolor Series of Ideal Concentrators 455

9.5.3 Unconcentrated Solar Radiation 456

9.6 Convectively Cooled Collectors 458

9.6.1 Linear Convective-Heat-Loss Model 459

9.6.2 Effect of Collector–Engine Heat-Exchanger Irreversibility 461

9.6.3 Combined Convective and Radiative Heat Loss 462

9.6.4 Collector-Ambient Heat Loss and Engine-Ambient Heat Exchanger 464

9.6.5 Storage by Melting 466

9.7 Extraterrestrial Solar Power Plant 469

9.8 Nonisothermal Collectors Time-Varying Conditions and Solar-Driven Refrigerators 472

9.9 Global Circulation and Climate 472

References 484

Problems 488

10 REFRIGERATION 493

10.1 Joule–Thomson Expansion 493

10.2 Work-Producing Expansion 500

10.3 Brayton Cycle 502

10.4 Optimal Intermediate Cooling 509

10.4.1 Counterflow Heat Exchanger 509

10.4.2 Application to Bioheat Transfer 512

10.4.3 Distribution of Expanders 512

10.4.4 Insulation Systems 517

10.5 Liquefaction 525

10.5.1 Liquefiers versus Refrigerators 525

10.5.2 Heylandt Nitrogen Liquefier 528

10.5.3 Efficiency of Liquefiers and Refrigerators 532

10.6 Refrigerator Models with Heat Transfer Irreversibilities 534

10.6.1 Heat Leak in Parallel with a Reversible Compartment 534

10.6.2 Optimal Time-Dependent Operation 537

10.6.3 Distribution of Cooling during Gas Compression 541

10.7 Magnetic Refrigeration 550

10.7.1 Fundamental Relations 552

10.7.2 Adiabatic Demagnetization 555

10.7.3 Paramagnetic Thermometry 556

10.7.4 The Third Law of Thermodynamics 559

References 561

Problems 564

11 ENTROPY-GENERATION MINIMIZATION 574

11.1 Trade-off between Competing Irreversibilities 574

11.1.1 Internal Flow and Heat Transfer 574

11.1.2 Heat Transfer Augmentation 579

11.1.3 External Flow and Heat Transfer 581

11.1.4 Convective Heat Transfer in General 584

11.2 Balanced Counterflow Heat Exchangers 587

11.2.1 The Ideal Limit 587

11.2.2 Area Constraint 591

11.2.3 Volume Constraint 593

11.2.4 Combined Area and Volume Constraint 595

11.3 Heat Exchangers with Negligible Pressure-Drop Irreversibility 595

11.3.1 The Maximum Entropy-Generation Rate Paradox 596

11.3.2 The Principle of Thermodynamic Isolation 598

11.3.3 Remanent (Flow-Imbalance) Irreversibilities 600

11.3.4 The Structure of Heat-Exchanger Irreversibility 603

11.4 Storage Systems 604

11.4.1 Sensible-Heat Storage: Energy Storage versus Exergy Storage 604

11.4.2 Optimal Storage Time Interval 605

11.4.3 Optimal Heat-Exchanger Size 608

11.4.4 Storage Followed by Removal of Exergy 609

11.4.5 Heating and Cooling Subject to Time Constraint 613

11.4.6 Latent Heat Storage 616

11.5 Power Maximization or Entropy-Generation Minimization 620

11.5.1 Heat-Transfer-Irreversible Power Plant Models 621

11.5.2 Minimum Entropy-Generation Rate 623

11.5.3 Fluid Flow Systems 627

11.5.4 Electrical Machines 631

11.6 From Entropy-Generation Minimization to Constructal Theory 634

11.6.1 Generation of Configuration Phenomenon 634

11.6.2 Optimal Organ Size 637

References 642

Problems 649

12 IRREVERSIBLE THERMODYNAMICS 656

12.1 Conjugate Fluxes and Forces 657

12.2 Linearized Relations 662

12.3 Reciprocity Relations 663

12.4 Thermoelectric Phenomena 665

12.4.1 Formulations 665

12.4.2 The Peltier Effect 670

12.4.3 The Seebeck Effect 672

12.4.4 The Thomson Effect 673

12.4.5 Power Generation 675

12.4.6 Refrigeration 680

12.5 Heat Conduction in Anisotropic Media 682

12.5.1 Formulation in Two Dimensions 683

12.5.2 Principal Directions and Conductivities 685

12.5.3 The Concentrated-Heat-Source Experiment 689

12.5.4 Three-Dimensional Conduction 690

12.6 Mass Diffusion 693

12.6.1 Nonisothermal Diffusion of a Single Component 693

12.6.2 Nonisothermal Binary Mixtures 695

12.6.3 Isothermal Diffusion 698

12.6.4 Electrodiffusion 699

References 699

Problems 701

13 THE CONSTRUCTAL LAW OF CONFIGURATION GENERATION 705

13.1 The Constructal Law 705

13.2 The Area-Point Access Problem 709

13.2.1 Street Patterns: A Simple Construction Sequence 709

13.2.2 Heat Flow Trees 721

13.2.3 Constructal Theory versus Fractal Algorithms 727

13.2.4 Fluid-Flow Trees 729

13.3 Natural Flow Patterns 739

13.3.1 River Meanders 741

13.3.2 River Basins and Deltas 742

13.3.3 Electric Discharges 747

13.3.4 Rivers of People 749

13.3.5 Channel Cross Sections 750

13.3.6 Turbulent Flow 755

13.3.7 Cracks in Shrinking Solids 762

13.3.8 Dendritic Crystals 767

13.3.9 Solid Bodies in Flow 773

13.4 Constructal Theory of Distribution of City Sizes by A. Bejan S. Lorente A. F. Miguel and A. H. Reis 774

13.5 Constructal Theory of Distribution of River Sizes by A. Bejan S. Lorente A. F. Miguel and A. H. Reis 779

13.6 Constructal Theory of Egyptian Pyramids and Flow Fossils in General by A. Bejan and S. Pe´rin 782

13.7 The Broad View: Biology Physics and Engineering 788

13.7.1 Heat Loss versus Body Size 790

13.7.2 Flight and Organ Sizes 795

13.7.3 Survival by Increasing Freedom Performance Svelteness and Territory 799

13.7.4 Modeling Is Not Theory 803

13.8 Constructal Theory of Running Swimming and Flying by A. Bejan and J. H. Marden 805

13.8.1 Running 807

13.8.2 Flying 811

13.8.3 Swimming 813

13.8.4 Locomotion and Turbulent Structure 814

13.9 Science and Civilization as Constructal Flow Systems 815

13.10 Freedom Is Good for Design 816

References 820

Problems 829

APPENDIX 842

Constants 842

Mathematical Formulas 842

Variational Calculus 844

Properties of Moderately Compressed-Liquid States 845

Properties of Slightly Superheated-Vapor States 846

Properties of Cold Water near the Density Maximum 847

Analysis of Engineering Components 848

The Flow Exergy of Gases at Low Pressures 851

Tables 853

References 863

ABOUT THE AUTHOR 865

AUTHOR INDEX 867

SUBJECT INDEX 875

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Author Information

Adrian Bejan received his B.S. (1971, Honors Course), M.S. (1972, Honors Course), and Ph.D. (1975) degrees in mechanical engineering, all from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. From 1976 until 1978 he was a Fellow of the Miller Institute for Basic Research in Science, at the University of California, Berkeley.
Adrian Bejan joined the faculty of the University of Colorado as an assistant professor in 1978 and was promoted to associate professor in 1981. Three years later he was appointed full professor with tenure at Duke University. He was awarded the J. A. Jones distinguished professorship in 1989.
Adrian Bejan has pioneered several original methods in thermal sciences and engineering: for example, entropy-generation minimization, scale analysis of convective heat and mass transfer, heatlines and masslines, designed porous media, the intersection of asymptotes method, and the optimal spacings of compact multiscale structures for maximum transport density. He formulated the constructal theory of design in nature in 1996.
Adrian Bejan is ranked among the 100 most-cited authors in all of engineering (all fields, all countries) by the Institute for Scientific Information (www.isihighlycited.com). He is the author of 20 books and 450 journal articles.
He has received 15 honorary doctorates from universities in 10 countries: for example, the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH Zürich) in 2003.
Professor Bejan has been honored by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) with the Edward F. Obert Award (2004), Charles Russ Richards Memorial Award (2001), Worcester Reed Warner Medal (1996), Heat Transfer Memorial Award-Science (1994), James Harry Potter Gold Medal (1990), and the Gustus L. Larson Memorial Award (1988). In 1999, he received the Max Jakob Memorial Award from the ASME and the American Institute of Chemical Engineers. He was honored with the Ralph Coats Roe Award (2000) by the American Society for Engineering Education.
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New to This Edition

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The Wiley Advantage

  • An authoritative treatment of the first and second laws of thermodynamics and the constructal law of natural generation of flow configuration, with prominent focus on the history of the discipline and its main ideas
  • Completely new chapters on single-phase systems, multiphase systems, chemically reactive systems, exergy analysis, thermodynamic optimization, irreversible thermodynamics, and constructal theory
  • Applications of thermodynamics to power generation, solar energy, refrigeration, air conditioning, thermofluid design, and constructal design
  • The latest theoretical advances made based on the constructal law: atmospheric circulation and earth climate, animal design (flying, running, swimming), hierarchy and geography of human settlements, scaling laws of all river basins, flow fossils and Egyptian pyramids, and science as a constructal flow architecture
  • A wealth of problems and worked-out examples
  • Brilliant, original illustrations, plus hundreds of classic and contemporary references
See More

Reviews

"Reading the book is a delightful experience that encourages the reader to further deepen his understanding of thermodynamics and the thermal sciences." (Science Direct, December 9, 2007)

"Reading this book is a delightful experience that encourages the reader to further deepen his understanding of thermoydnamics..."
—Jaime Cervantes-de Gortari (Internation Journal of Heat & Mass Transfer, Dec. 2006)

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Errata

Do you think you've discovered an error in this book? Please check the list of errata below to see if we've already addressed the error. If not, please submit the error via our Errata Form. We will attempt to verify your error; if you're right, we will post a correction below.

ChapterPageDetailsDatePrint Run
1 Error in Text
1st pg scientific is misspelled and there are various misspellings
through out the book
On page one, flow is missing an o in the first paragraph of the book.
2-16-11
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