Advanced Engineering Thermodynamics, 3rd EditionISBN: 9780471677635
920 pages
August 2006

Description
Adrian Bejan's Advanced Engineering Thermodynamics established itself as the definitive volume on this challenging subject. Now, his Third Edition builds on the success of its trailblazing predecessors by providing stateoftheart coverage in a slimmer, more convenient book.
Moving effortlessly among analysis, essay, and graphics, this streamlined edition of Adrian Bejan's powerful presentation will inspire future generations of researchers and students in all areas of engineering, physics, and life sciences. It features:
* An authoritative treatment of the first and second laws of thermodynamics and the constructal law of natural generation of flow configuration, with prominent focus on the history of the discipline and its main ideas
* Complete chapters on singlephase systems, multiphase systems, chemically reactive systems, exergy analysis, thermodynamic optimization, irreversible thermodynamics, and constructal theory
* Applications of thermodynamics to power generation, solar energy, refrigeration, air conditioning, thermofluid design, and constructal design
* The latest theoretical advances made based on the constructal law: atmospheric circulation and earth climate, animal design (flying, running, swimming), hierarchy and geography of human settlements, scaling laws of all river basins, flow fossils and Egyptian pyramids, and science as a constructal flow architecture
* A wealth of problems and workedout examples
* Brilliant, original illustrations, plus hundreds of classic and contemporary references
Table of Contents
PREFACE xix
PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION xxiii
PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION xxvii
SYMBOLS xxxi
1 THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 1
1.1 Elements of Thermodynamics Terminology 1
1.2 The First Law for Closed Systems 4
1.3 Work Transfer 8
1.4 Heat Transfer 13
1.5 Energy Change 17
1.6 The First Law for Open Systems 20
1.7 Historical Background 26
1.8 The Structured Presentation of the First Law 34
1.8.1 Poincare´’s Scheme 34
1.8.2 Carathe´odory’s Scheme 36
1.8.3 Keenan and Shapiro’s Second Scheme 36
References 37
Problems 39
2 THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 44
2.1 The Second Law for Closed Systems 44
2.1.1 Cycle in Contact with One Temperature Reservoir 46
2.1.2 Cycle in Contact with Two Temperature Reservoirs 46
2.1.3 Cycle in Contact with Any Number of Temperature Reservoirs 55
2.1.4 Process in Contact with Any Number of Temperature Reservoirs 57
2.2 The Second Law for Open Systems 60
2.3 The Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium Model 62
2.4 The Entropy Maximum and Energy Minimum Principles 65
2.5 Carathe´odory’s Two Axioms 70
2.5.1 Reversible and Adiabatic Surfaces 72
2.5.2 Entropy 76
2.5.3 Thermodynamic Temperature 80
2.5.4 The Two Parts of the Second Law 81
2.6 A Heat Transfer Man’s Two Axioms 81
2.7 Historical Background 88
References 89
Problems 91
3 ENTROPY GENERATION OR EXERGY DESTRUCTION 101
3.1 Lost Available Work 102
3.2 Cycles 109
3.2.1 HeatEngine Cycles 109
3.2.2 Refrigeration Cycles 111
3.2.3 HeatPump Cycles 114
3.3 Nonflow Processes 116
3.4 SteadyFlow Processes 120
3.5 Mechanisms of Entropy Generation or Exergy Destruction 126
3.5.1 Heat Transfer across a Finite Temperature Difference 126
3.5.2 Flow with Friction 129
3.5.3 Mixing 131
3.6 EntropyGeneration Minimization 134
3.6.1 The Method 134
3.6.2 Geometric Optimization of a TreeShaped FluidFlow Network 135
3.6.3 EntropyGeneration Number 138
References 140
Problems 142
4 SINGLEPHASE SYSTEMS 145
4.1 Simple System 145
4.2 Equilibrium Conditions 146
4.3 The Fundamental Relation 151
4.3.1 Energy Representation 152
4.3.2 Entropy Representation 153
4.3.3 Extensive Properties versus Intensive Properties 154
4.3.4 The Euler Equation 155
4.3.5 The Gibbs–Duhem Relation 156
4.4 Legendre Transforms 160
4.5 Relations between Thermodynamic Properties 169
4.5.1 Maxwell’s Relations 170
4.5.2 Relations Measured during Special Processes 172
4.5.3 Bridgman’s Table 181
4.5.4 Jacobians in Thermodynamics 183
4.6 Partial Molal Properties 187
4.7 Ideal Gas Mixtures 192
4.8 Real Gas Mixtures 195
References 198
Problems 199
5 EXERGY ANALYSIS 204
5.1 Nonflow Systems 204
5.2 Flow Systems 207
5.3 Generalized Exergy Analysis 211
5.4 AirConditioning Applications 213
5.4.1 Mixtures of Air and Water Vapor 213
5.4.2 Total Flow Exergy of Humid Air 215
5.4.3 Total Flow Exergy of Liquid Water 218
5.4.4 Evaporative Cooling Process 219
5.5 Other Aspects of Exergy Analysis 220
References 221
Problems 221
6 MULTIPHASE SYSTEMS 225
6.1 The Energy Minimum Principle in U H F and G Representations 225
6.1.1 The Energy Minimum Principle 226
6.1.2 The Enthalpy Minimum Principle 227
6.1.3 The Helmholtz FreeEnergy Minimum Principle 228
6.1.4 The Gibbs FreeEnergy Minimum Principle 229
6.1.5 The Star Diagram 230
6.2 The Internal Stability of a Simple System 231
6.2.1 Thermal Stability 231
6.2.2 Mechanical Stability 233
6.2.3 Chemical Stability 235
6.3 The Continuity of the Vapor and Liquid States 237
6.3.1 The Andrews Diagram and J. Thomson’s Theory 237
6.3.2 The van der Waals Equation of State 240
6.3.3 Maxwell’s EqualArea Rule 247
6.3.4 The Clapeyron Relation 248
6.4 Phase Diagrams 249
6.4.1 The Gibbs Phase Rule 249
6.4.2 SingleComponent Substances 250
6.4.3 TwoComponent Mixtures 254
6.5 Corresponding States 261
6.5.1 Compressibility Factor 261
6.5.2 Analytical P(v T) Equations of State 267
6.5.3 Calculation of Other Properties Based on P(v T) and Specific Heat Information 273
6.5.4 SaturatedLiquid and SaturatedVapor States 275
6.5.5 Metastable States 278
6.5.6 CriticalPoint Phenomena 281
References 283
Problems 285
7 CHEMICALLY REACTIVE SYSTEMS 291
7.1 Equilibrium 291
7.1.1 Chemical Reactions 291
7.1.2 Affinity 294
7.1.3 The Le Chatelier–Braun Principle 297
7.1.4 Ideal Gas Mixtures 301
7.2 Irreversible Reactions 308
7.3 SteadyFlow Combustion 317
7.3.1 Combustion Stoichiometry 317
7.3.2 The First Law 319
7.3.3 The Second Law 325
7.3.4 Maximum Power Output 328
7.4 The Chemical Exergy of Fuels 339
7.5 ConstantVolume Combustion 343
7.5.1 The First Law 343
7.5.2 The Second Law 345
7.5.3 Maximum Work Output 345
References 346
Problems 348
8 POWER GENERATION 352
8.1 Maximum Power Subject to Size Constraint 352
8.2 Maximum Power from Hot Stream 356
8.3 External Irreversibilities 363
8.4 Internal Irreversibilities 369
8.4.1 Heater 369
8.4.2 Expander 370
8.4.3 Cooler 371
8.4.4 Pump 372
8.4.5 Relative Importance of Internal Irreversibilities 373
8.5 Advanced SteamTurbine Power Plants 375
8.5.1 Superheater Reheater and Partial Condenser Vacuum 375
8.5.2 Regenerative Feed Heating 377
8.5.3 Combined Feed Heating and Reheating 385
8.6 Advanced GasTurbine Power Plants 390
8.6.1 External and Internal Irreversibilities 390
8.6.2 Regenerative Heat Exchanger Reheaters and Intercoolers 394
8.6.3 Cooled Turbines 397
8.7 Combined SteamTurbine and GasTurbine Power Plants 400
References 403
Problems 406
9 SOLAR POWER 419
9.1 Thermodynamic Properties of Thermal Radiation 419
9.1.1 Photons 420
9.1.2 Temperature 421
9.1.3 Energy 422
9.1.4 Pressure 425
9.1.5 Entropy 425
9.2 Reversible Processes 426
9.2.1 Reversible and Adiabatic Expansion or Compression 429
9.2.2 Reversible and Isothermal Expansion or Compression 429
9.2.3 Carnot Cycle 429
9.3 Irreversible Processes 430
9.3.1 Adiabatic Free Expansion 430
9.3.2 Transformation of Monochromatic Radiation into Blackbody Radiation 431
9.3.3 Scattering 433
9.3.4 Net Radiative Heat Transfer 435
9.3.5 Kirchhoff’s Law 438
9.4 The Ideal Conversion of Enclosed Blackbody Radiation 440
9.4.1 Petela’s Theory 440
9.4.2 The Controversy 443
9.4.3 Unifying Theory 443
9.4.4 Reformulation of Jeter’s Theory 448
9.5 Maximization of Power Output per Unit Collector Area 451
9.5.1 Ideal Concentrators 451
9.5.2 Omnicolor Series of Ideal Concentrators 455
9.5.3 Unconcentrated Solar Radiation 456
9.6 Convectively Cooled Collectors 458
9.6.1 Linear ConvectiveHeatLoss Model 459
9.6.2 Effect of Collector–Engine HeatExchanger Irreversibility 461
9.6.3 Combined Convective and Radiative Heat Loss 462
9.6.4 CollectorAmbient Heat Loss and EngineAmbient Heat Exchanger 464
9.6.5 Storage by Melting 466
9.7 Extraterrestrial Solar Power Plant 469
9.8 Nonisothermal Collectors TimeVarying Conditions and SolarDriven Refrigerators 472
9.9 Global Circulation and Climate 472
References 484
Problems 488
10 REFRIGERATION 493
10.1 Joule–Thomson Expansion 493
10.2 WorkProducing Expansion 500
10.3 Brayton Cycle 502
10.4 Optimal Intermediate Cooling 509
10.4.1 Counterflow Heat Exchanger 509
10.4.2 Application to Bioheat Transfer 512
10.4.3 Distribution of Expanders 512
10.4.4 Insulation Systems 517
10.5 Liquefaction 525
10.5.1 Liquefiers versus Refrigerators 525
10.5.2 Heylandt Nitrogen Liquefier 528
10.5.3 Efficiency of Liquefiers and Refrigerators 532
10.6 Refrigerator Models with Heat Transfer Irreversibilities 534
10.6.1 Heat Leak in Parallel with a Reversible Compartment 534
10.6.2 Optimal TimeDependent Operation 537
10.6.3 Distribution of Cooling during Gas Compression 541
10.7 Magnetic Refrigeration 550
10.7.1 Fundamental Relations 552
10.7.2 Adiabatic Demagnetization 555
10.7.3 Paramagnetic Thermometry 556
10.7.4 The Third Law of Thermodynamics 559
References 561
Problems 564
11 ENTROPYGENERATION MINIMIZATION 574
11.1 Tradeoff between Competing Irreversibilities 574
11.1.1 Internal Flow and Heat Transfer 574
11.1.2 Heat Transfer Augmentation 579
11.1.3 External Flow and Heat Transfer 581
11.1.4 Convective Heat Transfer in General 584
11.2 Balanced Counterflow Heat Exchangers 587
11.2.1 The Ideal Limit 587
11.2.2 Area Constraint 591
11.2.3 Volume Constraint 593
11.2.4 Combined Area and Volume Constraint 595
11.3 Heat Exchangers with Negligible PressureDrop Irreversibility 595
11.3.1 The Maximum EntropyGeneration Rate Paradox 596
11.3.2 The Principle of Thermodynamic Isolation 598
11.3.3 Remanent (FlowImbalance) Irreversibilities 600
11.3.4 The Structure of HeatExchanger Irreversibility 603
11.4 Storage Systems 604
11.4.1 SensibleHeat Storage: Energy Storage versus Exergy Storage 604
11.4.2 Optimal Storage Time Interval 605
11.4.3 Optimal HeatExchanger Size 608
11.4.4 Storage Followed by Removal of Exergy 609
11.4.5 Heating and Cooling Subject to Time Constraint 613
11.4.6 Latent Heat Storage 616
11.5 Power Maximization or EntropyGeneration Minimization 620
11.5.1 HeatTransferIrreversible Power Plant Models 621
11.5.2 Minimum EntropyGeneration Rate 623
11.5.3 Fluid Flow Systems 627
11.5.4 Electrical Machines 631
11.6 From EntropyGeneration Minimization to Constructal Theory 634
11.6.1 Generation of Configuration Phenomenon 634
11.6.2 Optimal Organ Size 637
References 642
Problems 649
12 IRREVERSIBLE THERMODYNAMICS 656
12.1 Conjugate Fluxes and Forces 657
12.2 Linearized Relations 662
12.3 Reciprocity Relations 663
12.4 Thermoelectric Phenomena 665
12.4.1 Formulations 665
12.4.2 The Peltier Effect 670
12.4.3 The Seebeck Effect 672
12.4.4 The Thomson Effect 673
12.4.5 Power Generation 675
12.4.6 Refrigeration 680
12.5 Heat Conduction in Anisotropic Media 682
12.5.1 Formulation in Two Dimensions 683
12.5.2 Principal Directions and Conductivities 685
12.5.3 The ConcentratedHeatSource Experiment 689
12.5.4 ThreeDimensional Conduction 690
12.6 Mass Diffusion 693
12.6.1 Nonisothermal Diffusion of a Single Component 693
12.6.2 Nonisothermal Binary Mixtures 695
12.6.3 Isothermal Diffusion 698
12.6.4 Electrodiffusion 699
References 699
Problems 701
13 THE CONSTRUCTAL LAW OF CONFIGURATION GENERATION 705
13.1 The Constructal Law 705
13.2 The AreaPoint Access Problem 709
13.2.1 Street Patterns: A Simple Construction Sequence 709
13.2.2 Heat Flow Trees 721
13.2.3 Constructal Theory versus Fractal Algorithms 727
13.2.4 FluidFlow Trees 729
13.3 Natural Flow Patterns 739
13.3.1 River Meanders 741
13.3.2 River Basins and Deltas 742
13.3.3 Electric Discharges 747
13.3.4 Rivers of People 749
13.3.5 Channel Cross Sections 750
13.3.6 Turbulent Flow 755
13.3.7 Cracks in Shrinking Solids 762
13.3.8 Dendritic Crystals 767
13.3.9 Solid Bodies in Flow 773
13.4 Constructal Theory of Distribution of City Sizes by A. Bejan S. Lorente A. F. Miguel and A. H. Reis 774
13.5 Constructal Theory of Distribution of River Sizes by A. Bejan S. Lorente A. F. Miguel and A. H. Reis 779
13.6 Constructal Theory of Egyptian Pyramids and Flow Fossils in General by A. Bejan and S. Pe´rin 782
13.7 The Broad View: Biology Physics and Engineering 788
13.7.1 Heat Loss versus Body Size 790
13.7.2 Flight and Organ Sizes 795
13.7.3 Survival by Increasing Freedom Performance Svelteness and Territory 799
13.7.4 Modeling Is Not Theory 803
13.8 Constructal Theory of Running Swimming and Flying by A. Bejan and J. H. Marden 805
13.8.1 Running 807
13.8.2 Flying 811
13.8.3 Swimming 813
13.8.4 Locomotion and Turbulent Structure 814
13.9 Science and Civilization as Constructal Flow Systems 815
13.10 Freedom Is Good for Design 816
References 820
Problems 829
APPENDIX 842
Constants 842
Mathematical Formulas 842
Variational Calculus 844
Properties of Moderately CompressedLiquid States 845
Properties of Slightly SuperheatedVapor States 846
Properties of Cold Water near the Density Maximum 847
Analysis of Engineering Components 848
The Flow Exergy of Gases at Low Pressures 851
Tables 853
References 863
ABOUT THE AUTHOR 865
AUTHOR INDEX 867
SUBJECT INDEX 875
Author Information
Adrian Bejan joined the faculty of the University of Colorado as an assistant professor in 1978 and was promoted to associate professor in 1981. Three years later he was appointed full professor with tenure at Duke University. He was awarded the J. A. Jones distinguished professorship in 1989.
Adrian Bejan has pioneered several original methods in thermal sciences and engineering: for example, entropygeneration minimization, scale analysis of convective heat and mass transfer, heatlines and masslines, designed porous media, the intersection of asymptotes method, and the optimal spacings of compact multiscale structures for maximum transport density. He formulated the constructal theory of design in nature in 1996.
Adrian Bejan is ranked among the 100 mostcited authors in all of engineering (all fields, all countries) by the Institute for Scientific Information (www.isihighlycited.com). He is the author of 20 books and 450 journal articles.
He has received 15 honorary doctorates from universities in 10 countries: for example, the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH Zürich) in 2003.
Professor Bejan has been honored by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) with the Edward F. Obert Award (2004), Charles Russ Richards Memorial Award (2001), Worcester Reed Warner Medal (1996), Heat Transfer Memorial AwardScience (1994), James Harry Potter Gold Medal (1990), and the Gustus L. Larson Memorial Award (1988). In 1999, he received the Max Jakob Memorial Award from the ASME and the American Institute of Chemical Engineers. He was honored with the Ralph Coats Roe Award (2000) by the American Society for Engineering Education.
New to This Edition
 Coverage of thermal design which has become a requirement in advanced thermodynamics and heat transfer courses.
 New coverage of optimal flow, the constructal theory of energy and entropy generation minimization, plus all new problems and a solutions manual.
The Wiley Advantage
 An authoritative treatment of the first and second laws of thermodynamics and the constructal law of natural generation of flow configuration, with prominent focus on the history of the discipline and its main ideas
 Completely new chapters on singlephase systems, multiphase systems, chemically reactive systems, exergy analysis, thermodynamic optimization, irreversible thermodynamics, and constructal theory
 Applications of thermodynamics to power generation, solar energy, refrigeration, air conditioning, thermofluid design, and constructal design
 The latest theoretical advances made based on the constructal law: atmospheric circulation and earth climate, animal design (flying, running, swimming), hierarchy and geography of human settlements, scaling laws of all river basins, flow fossils and Egyptian pyramids, and science as a constructal flow architecture
 A wealth of problems and workedout examples
 Brilliant, original illustrations, plus hundreds of classic and contemporary references
Reviews
"Reading this book is a delightful experience that encourages
the reader to further deepen his understanding of
thermoydnamics..."
—Jaime Cervantesde Gortari (Internation Journal of Heat
& Mass Transfer, Dec. 2006)
Errata
Do you think you've discovered an error in this book? Please check the list of errata below to see if we've already addressed the error. If not, please submit the error via our Errata Form. We will attempt to verify your error; if you're right, we will post a correction below.
Chapter  Page  Details  Date  Print Run 

1  Error in Text 1st pg scientific is misspelled and there are various misspellings through out the book On page one, flow is missing an o in the first paragraph of the book. 
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