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Ultra Wideband Wireless Communication

ISBN: 978-0-471-71521-4
520 pages
October 2006
Ultra Wideband Wireless Communication (0471715212) cover image

Description

An international panel of experts provide major research issues and a self-contained, rapid introduction to the theory and application of UWB


This book delivers end-to-end coverage of recent advances in both the theory and practical design of ultra wideband (UWB) communication networks. Contributions offer a worldwide perspective on new and emerging applications, including WPAN, sensor and ad hoc networks, wireless telemetry, and telemedicine. The book explores issues related to the physical layer, medium access layer, and networking layer.

Following an introductory chapter, the book explores three core areas:
* Analysis of physical layer and technology issues
* System design elements, including channel modeling, coexistence, and interference mitigation and control
* Review of MAC and network layer issues, up to the application

Case studies present examples such as network and transceiver design, assisting the reader in understanding the application of theory to real-world tasks.

Ultra Wideband Wireless Communication enables technical professionals, graduate students, engineers, scientists, and academic and professional researchers in mobile and wireless communications to become conversant with the latest theory and applications by offering a survey of all important topics in the field. It also serves as an advanced mathematical treatise; however, the book is organized to allow non-technical readers to bypass the mathematical treatments and still gain an excellent understanding of both theory and practice.
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Table of Contents

Preface xv

Contributors xix

Chapter 1 Introduction to Ultra Wideband 1
Hüseyin Arslan and Maria-Gabriella Di Benedetto

1.1 Introduction 1

1.1.1 Benefits of UWB 2

1.1.2 Applications 3

1.1.3 Challenges 3

1.2 Scope of the Book 4

Chapter 2 UWB Channel Estimation and Synchronization 11
Irena Maravic and Martin Vetterli

2.1 Introduction 11

2.2 Channel Estimation at SubNyquist Sampling Rate 14

2.2.1 UWB Channel Model 14

2.2.2 Frequency-Domain Channel Estimation 15

2.2.3 Polynomial Realization of the Model-Based Methods 16

2.2.4 Subspace-Based Approach 20

2.2.5 Estimation of Closely Spaced Paths 24

2.3 Performance Evaluation 25

2.3.1 Analysis of Noise Sensitivity 25

2.3.2 Computational Complexity and Alternative Solutions 27

2.3.3 Numerical Example 28

2.4 Estimating UWB Channels with Frequency-Dependent Distortion 29

2.4.1 Algorithm Outline 31

2.5 Channel Estimation from Multiple Bands 32

2.5.1 Filter Bank Approach 32

2.5.2 Estimation from Nonadjacent Bands 32

2.6 Low-Complexity Rapid Acquisition in UWB Localizers 34

2.6.1 Two-Step Estimation 36

2.7 Conclusions 39

Chapter 3 Ultra Wideband Geolocation 43
Sinan Gezici, Zafer Sahinoglu, Hisashi Kobayashi, and H. Vincent Poor

3.1 Introduction 43

3.2 Signal Model 44

3.3 Positioning Techniques 44

3.3.1 Angle of Arrival 45

3.3.2 Received Signal Strength 49

3.3.3 Time-Based Approaches 51

3.4 Main Sources of Error in Time-Based Positioning 52

3.4.1 Multipath Propagation 52

3.4.2 Multiple Access Interference 53

3.4.3 Nonline-of-Sight Propagation 53

3.4.4 High Time Resolution of UWB Signals 54

3.5 Ranging and Positioning 55

3.5.1 Relationship Between Ranging and Optimal Positioning Algorithms 55

3.5.2 ToA Estimation Algorithms 58

3.5.3 Two-Way Ranging Protocols 69

3.6 Location-Aware Applications 70

3.7 Conclusions 71

Chapter 4 UWB Modulation Options 77
Hüseyin Arslan, Ismail Güenc¸, and Sadia Ahmed

4.1 Introduction 77

4.2 UWB Signaling Techniques 78

4.2.1 UWB-IR Signaling 79

4.2.2 Multiband UWB 83

4.2.3 Multicarrier UWB 85

4.2.4 OFDM 85

4.3 Data Mapping 87

4.3.1 Binary Data Mapping Schemes 87

4.3.2 M-ary Data Mapping Schemes 89

4.4 Spectral Characteristics 91

4.5 Data Mapping and Transceiver Complexity 92

4.6 Modulation Performances in Practical Conditions 93

4.6.1 Effects of Multipath 93

4.6.2 Effects of Multiple Access Interference 95

4.6.3 Effects of Timing Jitter and Finger Estimation Error 96

4.7 Conclusion 99

Chapter 5 Ultra Wideband Pulse Shaper Design 103
Zhi Tian, Timothy N. Davidson, Xiliang Luo, Xianren Wu, and Georgios B. Giannakis

5.1 Introduction 103

5.2 Transmit Spectrum and Pulse Shaper 105

5.3 FIR Digital Pulse Design 108

5.4 Optimal UWB Single Pulse Design 110

5.4.1 Parks–McClellan Algorithm 110

5.4.2 Optimal UWB Pulse Design via Direct Maximization of NESP 111

5.4.3 Constrained Frequency Response Approximation 113

5.4.4 Constrained Frequency Response Design with Linear Phase Filters 114

5.5 Optimal UWB Orthogonal Pulse Design 115

5.5.1 Orthogonality Formulation 115

5.5.2 Sequential UWB Pulse Design 117

5.5.3 Sequential UWB Pulse Design with Linear Phase Filters 118

5.6 Design Examples and Comparisons 120

5.6.1 Single-Pulse Designs and their Spectral Utilization Efficiency 120

5.6.2 Multiband Pulse Design 122

5.6.3 Multiple Orthogonal Pulse Design 123

5.6.4 Pulse Designs for Narrowband Interference Avoidance 125

5.6.5 Impact of Pulse Designs on Transceiver Power Efficiency 126

5.7 Conclusions 128

Chapter 6 Antenna Issues 131
Zhi Ning Chen

6.1 Introduction 131

6.2 Design Considerations 132

6.2.1 Description of Antenna Systems 132

6.2.2 Single-Band and Multiband Schemes 134

6.2.3 Source Pulses 136

6.2.4 Transmit Antenna and PDS 136

6.2.5 Transmit–Receive Antenna System 141

6.3 Antenna and Pulse versus BER Performance 148

6.3.1 Pulsed UWB System 148

6.3.2 Effects of Antennas and Pulses 151

Chapter 7 Ultra Wideband Receiver Architectures 157
Hüseyin Arslan

7.1 Introduction 157

7.2 System Model 158

7.3 UWB Receiver Related Issues 160

7.3.1 Sampling 160

7.3.2 UWB Channel and Channel Parameters Estimation 161

7.3.3 Interference in UWB 164

7.3.4 Other Receiver-Related Issues 165

7.4 TH-IR-UWB Receiver Options 165

7.4.1 Optimal Matched Filter 167

7.4.2 TR-Based Scheme 171

7.4.3 Differential Detector 175

7.4.4 Energy Detector 176

7.5 Conclusion 178

Chapter 8 Ultra Wideband Channel Modeling and Its Impact on System Design 183
Chia-Chin Chong

8.1 Introduction 183

8.2 Principles and Background of UWB Multipath Propagation Channel Modeling 184

8.2.1 Basic Multipath Propagation Mechanisms 184

8.2.2 Classification of UWB Channel Models 185

8.3 Channel Sounding Techniques 187

8.3.1 Time-Domain Technique 187

8.3.2 Frequency-Domain Technique 188

8.4 UWB Statistical-Based Channel Modeling 189

8.4.1 Modeling Philosophy and Mathematical Framework 189

8.4.2 Large-Scale Channel Characterization 190

8.4.3 Small-Scale Channel Characterization 193

8.4.4 Temporal Dispersion and Correlation Properties 197

8.5 Impact of UWB Channel on System Design 199

8.6 Conclusion 200

Chapter 9 MIMO and UWB 205
Thomas Kaiser

9.1 Introduction 205

9.2 Potential Benefits of MIMO and UWB 206

9.3 Literature Review of UWB Multiantenna Techniques 208

9.3.1 Spatial Multiplexing 208

9.3.2 Spatial Diversity 209

9.3.3 Beamforming 209

9.3.4 Related Topics 210

9.4 Spatial Channel Measurements and Modeling 211

9.4.1 Spatial Channel Measurements 211

9.4.2 Spatial Channel Modeling 213

9.5 Spatial Multiplexing 215

9.6 Spatial Diversity 216

9.7 Beamforming 220

9.8 Conclusion and Outlook 223

Chapter 10 Multiple-Access Interference Mitigation in Ultra Wideband Systems 227
Sinan Gezici, Hisashi Kobayashi, and H. Vincent Poor

10.1 Introduction 227

10.2 Signal Model 228

10.2.1 Transmitted Signal 228

10.2.2 Received Signal 229

10.3 Multiple-Access Interference Mitigation at the Receiver Side 231

10.3.1 Maximum-Likelihood Sequence Detection 232

10.3.2 Linear Receivers 232

10.3.3 Iterative (Turbo) Algorithms 240

10.3.4 Other Receiver Structures 243

10.4 Multiple-Access Interference Mitigation at the Transmitter Side 244

10.4.1 Time-Hopping Sequence Design for MAI Mitigation 245

10.4.2 Pseudochaotic Time Hopping 246

10.4.3 Multistage Block-Spreading UWB Access 247

10.5 Concluding Remarks 248

Chapter 11 Narrowband Interference Issues in Ultra Wideband Systems 255
Hüseyin Arslan and Mustafa E. Sahin

11.1 Introduction 255

11.2 Effect of NBI in UWB Systems 258

11.3 Avoiding NBI 261

11.3.1 Multicarrier Approach 261

11.3.2 Multiband Schemes 263

11.3.3 Pulse Shaping 264

11.3.4 Other NBI Avoidance Methods 266

11.4 Canceling NBI 267

11.4.1 MMSE Combining 268

11.4.2 Frequency Domain Techniques 268

11.4.3 Time–Frequency Domain Techniques 269

11.4.4 Time Domain Techniques 270

11.5 Conclusion and Future Research 271

Chapter 12 Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing for Ultra Wideband Communications 277
Ebrahim Saberina and Ahmed H. Tewfik

12.1 Introduction 277

12.2 Multiband OFDM System 278

12.2.1 Band Planning 278

12.2.2 Sub-Band Hopping 278

12.2.3 OFDM Modulation 280

12.2.4 Frequency Repetition Spreading 280

12.2.5 Time Repetition Spreading 280

12.2.6 Coding 281

12.2.7 Supported Bit Rates 281

12.2.8 MB-OFDM Transceiver 282

12.2.9 Improvement to MB-OFDM 283

12.3 Multiband Pulsed-OFDM UWB system 284

12.3.1 Pulsed-OFDM Transmitter 284

12.3.2 Pulsed-OFDM Signal Spectrum 284

12.3.3 Digital Equivalent Model and Diversity of Pulsed-OFDM 286

12.3.4 Pulsed-OFDM Receiver 288

12.3.5 Selecting the Up-sampling Factor 289

12.4 Comparing MB-OFDM and MB-Pulsed-OFDM systems 290

12.4.1 System Parameters 290

12.4.2 Complexity Comparision 290

12.4.3 Power Consumption Comparison 290

12.4.4 Chip Area Comparison 291

12.4.5 Performance Comparison 293

12.5 Conclusion 295

Chapter 13 UWB Networks and Applications 297
Krishna M. Sivalingam and Aniruddha Rangnekar

13.1 Introduction 297

13.2 Background 298

13.2.1 UWB Physical Layer 298

13.2.2 IEEE 802.15.3 Standards 299

13.3 Medium Access Protocols 300

13.3.1 IEEE 802.15.3 MAC Protocol 300

13.3.2 Impact of UWB Channel Acquisition Time 303

13.3.3 Multiple Channels 305

13.4 Network Applications 310

13.5 Summary and Discussion 311

Acknowledgments 311

Chapter 14 Low-Bit-Rate UWB Networks 315
Luca DeNardis and Gian Mario Maggio

14.1 Low Data-Rate UWB Network Applications 315

14.1.1 802.15.4a: A Short History 315

14.1.2 The 802.15.4a PHY 316

14.1.3 PHY: 802.15.4a versus 802.15.4 316

14.1.4 Technical Requirements 317

14.1.5 Applications 319

14.2 The 802.15.4 MAC Standard 321

14.2.1 Network Devices and Topologies 321

14.2.2 Medium Access Strategy 322

14.2.3 From 802.15.4 to 802.15.4a 324

14.3 Advanced MAC Design for Low-Bit-Rate UWB Networks 324

14.3.1 (UWB)2: Uncoordinated, Wireless, Baseborn Medium Access for UWB Communication Networks 325

14.3.2 Transmission Procedure 328

14.3.3 Reception Procedure 331

14.3.4 Simulation Results 333

Chapter 15 An Overview of Routing Protocols for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks 341
David A. Sumy, Branimir Vojcic, and Jinghao Xu

15.1 Introduction 341

15.2 Ad Hoc Networks 343

15.3 Routing in MANETs 345

15.4 Proactive Routing 345

15.4.1 DSDV 346

15.4.2 WRP 348

15.4.3 CGSR 350

15.4.4 STAR 351

15.4.5 HSR 352

15.4.6 OLSR 355

15.4.7 TBRPF 356

15.4.8 DREAM 358

15.4.9 GSR 360

15.4.10 FSR 360

15.4.11 HR 362

15.4.12 HSLS and A-HSLS 363

15.5 Reactive Routing 364

15.5.1 DSR 365

15.5.2 ARA 367

15.5.3 ABR 369

15.5.4 AODV 372

15.5.5 BSR 374

15.5.6 CHAMP 376

15.5.7 DYMO 377

15.5.8 DNVR 378

15.5.9 LAR 380

15.5.10 LBR 381

15.5.11 MPABR 383

15.5.12 NDMR 384

15.5.13 PLBM 385

15.5.14 RDMAR 387

15.5.15 SOAR 388

15.5.16 TORA 391

15.6 Power-Aware Routing 393

15.6.1 BEE 394

15.6.2 EADSR 395

15.6.3 MTPR/MBCR/MMBCR/CMMBCR 395

15.6.4 PARO 396

15.6.5 PAWF 398

15.6.6 MFP/MIP/MFPenergy/MIPenergy 400

15.7 Hybrid Routing 400

15.7.1 MultiWARP 401

15.7.2 SHARP 402

15.7.3 SLURP 403

15.7.4 ZRP 406

15.7.5 AZRP 408

15.7.6 IZR 408

15.7.7 TZRP 408

15.8 Other 410

15.9 Conclusion 411

Appendix 418

Chapter 16 Adaptive UWB Systems 429
Francesca Cuomo and Crishna Martello

16.1 Introduction 429

16.1.1 Related Work on Adaptive UWB Systems 431

16.2 A Distributed Power-Regulated Admission Control Scheme for UWB 432

16.2.1 Problem Formalization 434

16.2.2 Power Selection in UWB 435

16.2.3 Steps of the Access Scheme 438

16.3 Performance Analysis 439

16.3.1 Impact of the Initial MEI on Performance of MEI-Based Power Regulation Schemes 442

16.3.2 Performance Behavior as a Function of the Offered Load 445

16.4 Summary 449

Chapter 17 UWB Location and Tracking—A Practical Example of an UWB-Based Sensor Network 451
Ian Oppermann, Kegen Yu, Alberto Rabbachin, Lucian Stoica, Paul Cheong, Jean-Philippe Montillet, and Sakari Tiuraniemi

17.1 Introduction 451

17.2 Multiple Access in UWB Sensor Systems 452

17.2.1 Location/Ranging Support 453

17.2.2 Constraints and Implications of UWB Technologies on MAC Design 453

17.3 UWB Sensor Network Case Study 454

17.4 System Description—UWEN 456

17.4.1 Communications System 456

17.4.2 Transmitted Signal 456

17.4.3 Framing Structure 458

17.4.4 Location Approach 458

17.5 System Implementation 459

17.5.1 Transceiver Overview 459

17.5.2 Transmitter 460

17.5.3 UWB Pulse Generator 462

17.6 Location System 463

17.7 Position Calculation Methods 468

17.8 Tracking Moving Objects 473

17.8.1 Simulation Results 474

17.9 Conclusion 476

Acknowledgments 477

Index 481

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Author Information

HÜSEYIN ARSLAN, PhD, is Assistant Professor at the University of South Florida. Dr. Arslan's research interests center on advanced signal processing techniques at the physical layer, with cross-layer design for network adaptivity and quality of service control. He worked at Ericsson Research for about five years and continues his close relations with wireless industries as a consultant and with university sponsored research.

ZHI NING CHEN, PhD, is Adjunct Professor in the Electromagnetics Academy at Zhejiang University, China and at the National University of Singapore. Dr. Chen is also Lead Scientist at the Institute for Infocomm Research.

MARIA-GABRIELLA DI BENEDETTO, PhD, is Professor of Telecommunications at the University of Rome La Sapienza, Italy. Dr. Di Benedetto is active in fostering the development of UWB telecommunication systems in Europe and is the Director at Infocom for two European IST projects.

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